Regarding to splitting of the Bitcoin Blockchain.

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P2Pool Hardfork 14.0 where and when is it decided?

I have read on here that hardforks are a point where the pool with the biggest stick gets to decide which course the blockchain will take. Has the hardfork only just begun? When is the fork ultimately ...
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57 views

Have bitcoin developers applied the solution for selfish miner attack?

The Majority is not enough paper proposed an academic and somehow practical attack to Bitcoin mining system based on creating hidden forks. The paper claims that if miners work on whichever fork they ...
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pindexLastCommonBlock - No update after reorganization?

How often do peers update their last common block with other peers? If a node receives a new best blockchain tip, it seems as if this peer doesn't make this new tip to the last common block with the ...
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20 views

How to access peer's tip of chain?

In case I'm a selfish miner and have successfully forked the blockchain, I'd like to know the state of progress of my honest nodes at any given time - how can I achieve this? Do peers on separate ...
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21 views

How to fork blockchain intentionally without RPC commands?

Are there any methods other than RPC command invalidateblock <hash> for creating forks? I know that forks occur when two miners (nearly) simultanously each generate a block for a previous common ...
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1answer
39 views

Amount of block locator hashes in “getblocks” message

How many block locator hashes are sent in a getblocks message? And how distant are these locator hashes from one another?
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114 views

Who makes the decision about blocksize?

I have been running a full node for little less than a year and I am following the discussion around blocksize increase. I am for it. Who actually can make a decision whether the blocksize increase ...
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1answer
65 views

Implicit/Tacit mechanisms in Bitcoin Core disclosing Selfish Mining

I'm referring to the selfish mine attack described by two researchers from Cornell University who describe a "possible" attack with lower than 51% hashing power. Now it's interesting to know what ...
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51 views

Valid fork in regtest - Change blockchain via RPC?

I've created a regtest network consisting of 2 nodes - node0 & node1. I'd like to have a fork on the common blockchain and seemingly achieved it by doing so: nodes start node0 adds node1 via ...
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How is a blockchain split resolved?

Let's say two miners created 2 different blocks and broadcast them into the network. Now some clients see blockchain 1 and other blockchain 2 which are different from each other. I would like to ...
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2answers
52 views

Why is halving the best time for block size increase hard fork?

Gavin Andresen said the best time to launch the block size increase update / hard fork would be the next reward halving (when mining discovery bounty would go from 25btc to 12.5btc). Why has halving ...
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111 views

Testing blockchain forks

I want to test if a service can manage a blockchain fork. However there is no way to get bitcoind to create test forks under the regtest mode. I've tried modifying it to generate blocks with arbitrary ...
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1answer
109 views

If there is a block-size hard fork, will the old chain have an advantage?

On his blog, Mircea Popescu claims the old chain will have an advantage: The situation here is aggravated by the fact that the fork proposed is not simply nondeterministic behaviour, and so the ...
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129 views

Has a hard fork ever occurred?

BIP 50 describes the 2013 event in which a block chain fork persisted for several hours. Its first paragraph reads: A block that had a larger number of total transaction inputs than previously ...
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334 views

Can a shorter chain overcome a longer one?

Could a dominating chain fork actually be shorter (in blocks) than its abandoned predecessor? Under what circumstances could this happen?
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377 views

Why doesn't bitcoin place additional constraints on competing block chain forks, other than length of chain? (e.g., time and confirmation count)

In Bitcoin's proof-of-work system, consensus on which chain of blocks should be considered the "true" block chain is based only(?) on which chain is longer. Accordingly, to quote a nicely written ...
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1answer
96 views

Is it likely that side-chain support will be added to Bitcoin?

Is it likely that side-chain support will be added to Bitcoin? As I understand it, side-chain support will require a hard fork to Bitcoin to support this functionality: "moving" BTC to external ...
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1answer
82 views

What happens to my outgoing txs in a block reorganization?

Let's assume I create and send a series of txs: |------block A--------|------block B----------|----block C-----|----block D-----| ...
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84 views

Bitcoind confirmations during fork

I'm using bitcoind's JSONRPC interface to get transaction information for my wallet, specifically, I'm running a little script every time a block gets broadcast (using -blocknotify) which calls the ...
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17 views

What is the difference between a hard fork and a soft fork? [duplicate]

A fork is a splitting of the blockchain. But what is the difference between a hard fork and a soft fork?
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646 views

What is a soft fork?

When people talk about possible changes to how Bitcoin works they sometimes say a particular change can be implemented as a soft fork. What does that mean? How does this compare to a hard fork?
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50 views

Who is rewarded

I see that transactions are recorded as blocks in the blockchain. Thereby, blocks compete for the order in the blockchain in case of forks. I do not quite understand if it is block encoding is ...
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1answer
82 views

How frequent are side-chain reorganizations of various lengths?

I'm wondering if anyone has collected statistics on how often reorganizations of side-chains with length 1 happen in comparison with lengths of 2, 3, or more. Related: What is the longest chain ...
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1answer
350 views

Strongest vs Longest chain and orphaned blocks

Satoshi writes at the bottom of page 3 of his white paper that "If two nodes broadcast different versions of the next block simultaneously, some nodes may receive one or the other first. In that case, ...
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Longest “natural” fork [duplicate]

Once a day, roughly, two competing blocks with the same height are mined, which leads to one of them being orphaned. Was there ever a "natural" case in which the fork lasted for two rounds? By ...
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223 views

Is a full blockchain fork possible?

Let's say someone creates a blockchain fork starting from the genesis block, when the difficulty was absurdly low compared to today; then he starts mining new blocks from there up to the current block ...
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1answer
170 views

Dealing with forks

It seems with a lot of alternate cryptocurrencies that forks are a serious problem. Due to attacks or multi-coin pools throwing insane amounts of hash power I have noticed a few of my coins regularly ...
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1answer
104 views

Detecting fork using bitcoind

What's the most efficient way to detect a fork in the blockchain? My app polls for changes to user deposit addresses on each new block. Deposits are credited to user accounts with a record in a ...
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3answers
157 views

How is over-spending one block apart prevented?

So, let's say you have a wallet with 20BTC, and you have a flow like so: You send 15BTC to A in block 1 You send 15BTC to B in block 2 What happens if at block 1 there are two chains across ...
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317 views

Why did Dogecoin fork into 3 chains and not just 2?

This I never understood ever since Dogecoin forked in mid-February 2014: If the cause of the fork was, apparently, the same as the one that affected Bitcoin in March 2013 (namely: a very long block ...
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2answers
125 views

What if the execution time for an alt coin script exceeds the block time?

I don't know when and how often a script is executed, but it seems to me that there would be a problem if a single script (or a sum of all scripts in a block) exceeds the time it takes to be included ...
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1answer
144 views

Hypothetical situation: the Internet gets split in two, what happens with Bitcoin?

Let's suppose, that at some time the Internet gets split in two, possibly because of wartime, or another possibilities (there was once a situation, when Egypt managed to split the internet in their ...
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94 views

Can bitcoind/bitcoin-qt (via RPC or command-line-options) be used to discover when two competing best-blocks exist?

The standard bitcoind/bitcoin-qt client lets you ask for the highest known block, via RPC, or get notifications when a new 'best block' is locally acknowledged (via the -blocknotify option). But, is ...
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2answers
150 views

Transaction fees when a block chain is discarded

I'm a bit new to the bitcoin system, so I apologize if this is a "noob" question. A user attempts to take all the unverified transactions it knows about and aggregate them in a chain block. The same ...
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1answer
65 views

What parts of Bitcoin (litecoin etc) are Little Endian?

As mentioned on this Hardfork Wishlist, many developers want Bitcoin to be entirely Big Endian for consistency and performance reasons. I'm looking for a concise list of all the areas that Bitcoin ...
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3answers
376 views

Can Bitcoin incorporate the scripting protocols of Ethereum without a fork?

I am curious if the Bitcoin protocol can incorporate Turing complete scripting capabilities without forking the block chain. I ask this because I understand the ability to create contracts digitally ...
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1answer
101 views

What would happen if there were two “disjoined” versions of bitcoin with the same popularity? [duplicate]

Right now, we have one accepted version of Bitcoin (the software) and most miners and full nodes are using some versions of that. However, what can very well happen is some split within Bitcoin ...
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1answer
92 views

What's the formula giving the % of succesfully maliciously messing the blockchain?

With the recent (early 2014) GHash.io concerns about that particular mining pool getting too big, many people have talk about what a powerful miner could do if it wanted to "harm" bitcoin or ...
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1answer
64 views

Blockchain length by number of blocks or transactions?

It is my understanding that the longest blockchain is the one that should be used. Is "longest" measured by the number of blocks or the number of transactions?
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1answer
208 views

Could bitcoin “survive” a definitive hard fork, spawning a new currency?

What happens if two different groups have a definitive disagreement about the evolution of the bitcoin protocol? I have read is several places that the "majority" somehow would win, but is this really ...
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2answers
492 views

Longer fake block chain with “valid” transactions

What is preventing the bitcoin client from switching to a fake block chain that would be longer that current official chain? The faked chain would contain fictional transactions, but within the faked ...
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1answer
239 views

Do we know who runs the big mining pools?

After looking at the hashrate repartition https://blockchain.info/fr/pools. It seems to me that bitcoin is quite centralized, and that two big actors (mining pools company who run the bitcoind server) ...
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205 views

Alternative: Mining scheme driven by logistic function

Could a mining scheme driven by logistic function bring a greater price (= exchange rate) stability to a crypto-currency in comparison to Bitcoin for example since it better models natural growth? ...
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136 views

Can someone create a very complex transaction to try to fork the network?

If contracts are built into the code already, what is to stop someone from creating a transaction script that is very cpu intensive to verify, so that some computers accept the block with it and ...
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2answers
619 views

What happens to extinct blockchains, and transactions inside of them?

While understanding the concept of block chain and proof of work, few things are confusing me. Miners always consider the longest chain(by difficulty) and work on expanding it. Now, lets say two ...
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1answer
140 views

How does a miner insert the hash of a merged-mined alt chain's transaction into a Bitcoin transaction?

I've read the how does merged mining work? thread and I'm a bit confused as to how one of the transactions in the bitcoin block "stores" the hash of the Namecoin block. Where is this information ...
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474 views

Countrywide Internet isolation, inevitable fork

Many countries around the world have provisions for shutting off the Internet as well as isolating itself from the Internet (where networking within borders still flourishes), any transaction ...
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1answer
80 views

How are transactions in forks verified efficiently?

In this answer here, it's stated that Bitcoin uses a hashtable of all currently unspent outputs, in order to verify that the inputs of transactions haven't already been spent. How does this interact ...
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2answers
347 views

How does a Bitcoin client efficiently change forks?

Occasionally, a Bitcoin client will come across a fork of blocks that is longer than the chain it is currently on. Depending on how often orphaned blocks occur, this could be quite often. When this ...
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5k views

How is a hard fork resolved?

In March 2013 there was a fork following the v0.8 release. The issue was resolved rather efficiently, as explained in the post-mortem report. However in this process there were winners and losers: the ...