The language used in the Ethereum ecosystem doesn't always entirely align with the language used in the Bitcoin ecosystem.
All full nodes in the Bitcoin ecosystem verify all transactions and blocks from genesis. This is generally not the case in the Ethereum ecosystem as this exercise is much slower and requires significantly more disk operations (i.e. see Jameson Lopp commentary).
Full nodes in the Bitcoin ecosystem can either be pruned or archival. Pruned full nodes don't store data on spent transaction outputs in perpetuity while archival full nodes do. If you want to do something like query the effective balance of a Bitcoin address at block 4,000,000 you would need an archival full node. You would also need software like Electrum Personal Server (EPS) or alternatives that index historical UTXOs by address.
For more details on the different types of full nodes in the Bitcoin ecosystem see this presentation from John Light at London Bitcoin Devs in July 2018.