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What zero-conf channels are seems pretty straighforward (correct me if I'm wrong) -- channels that are immediately usable without needed confirmation on the blockchain. These are very useful since Alice can get Bob set up on Lightning without needed to wait for confirmation.

If there are different variants, can you describe how each works,trust assumptions, and possible drawbacks/attack vectors?

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You can have a trustless zero-confirmation channel if it's funded from a 2-of-2 multisignature address and each party has one of the private keys. As far as I can tell, any other setup requires trusting the other party that they don't try to double-spend. Other than that, it works just like a normal channel.

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    Except this model is susceptible to fee based attacks like cpfp based tx pinning
    – arshbot
    Jul 23 at 17:20

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