I read couple of blogs and responses on hosting server to expose data using JSON-RPC but wanted to confirm if there is a way to query node data that I am not hosting (not connecting via P1P) using JSON-RPC protocol (or any other protocol that allows querying data and not pull everything)
Note: I am talking about mainnet and not testnet
OP clarified in a comment:
I want to query Bitcoin node for some specific data like transaction. I do not want to host my own BTC node
Yeah, you can query node data that you are not hosting using JSON-RPC.
However, there are many other options you can use:
Use a node's REST API, Bitcoin Core REST API.
Use a REST API provided by some third party, like for instance any famous Bitcoin data analytics platform, or any famous blocks chain explorer.
Contribute a full node to the network and query it privately.
The third option is actually the easiest to get, [by largely far] the most secure, the most readily available, the least vendor lock in, the cheapest to maintain, and the most beneficial to the Bitcoin ecosystem.