Maximum number of outbound full relay connections is 8 and 2 block-only excluding manual connections (8) right now
What was maximum number of outbound connections in 2009 when Satoshi started running bitcoin node?
It does not look like 0.1.0 has a strict outbound connections limit. The thread which opens outbound connections will stop opening new connections when there are 15 connections total.
However it seems like it is possible to open unlimited manual connections, although manual connections cannot really be created in the same way they can be today. Rather manual connections in 0.1.0 are those created during the send to IP process - the node would connect to the specified IP, request a pubkey from it, and send to that pubkey. It seems like that connection would not be dropped afterwards. There does not appear to be limit on the number of connections that could be opened in this way.