In the early days of Bitcoin, sure. Today, not so much.
Back when Bitcoin was only being mined by a few individuals on their home PCs, it would have been "relatively" easy to use a supercomputer, mine for one difficulty adjustment period, and then stop mining, leaving the network in a state where mining another 2016 blocks could easily take years. (Correction: It would take more than one difficulty adjustment period to do that.) What the community could then do is to deploy a fork that would deliberately ignore the longer chain, making mining possible again.
Today, even the largest general-purpose supercomputers cannot compete with miners using ASICs built specifically for mining bitcoin. If you wanted to get orders of magnitude more computing power than the rest of the network, you would need orders of magnitude more ASICs, at a time when ASIC manufacturers barely keep up with demand from actual miners.
Of course, if you have more computing power than the rest of the network combined, you can execute a 51% attack, which might be a lot more damaging to Bitcoin than the attack you've described.