I saw a Bitcoin puzzle on https://privatekeys.pw, on which there are different private key spaces with addresses and then you need to somehow find out the right private key? Is there a way to calculate the private key range from the address and what data would be needed to do that?
is there a way to calculate private key range of the address
No. Addresses of the most popular type of locking scripts are a hash of a public key. Hashes are designed to produce values that give no clues to the original data. Functions that produce public keys are designed to produce values that give no clues to the private key.