I have seen it discussed in various places (e.g. 1, 2) that using BIP32 key derivation impacts the design of secure key aggregation multisig and threshold schemes like MuSig(2) and FROST.

What are the relevant security concerns here? Is it hardened or non hardened derivation (or both) that are relevant here? Is BIP32 key derivation one of the reasons why Bitcoin design decisions are often different to those made in research papers without a focus on Bitcoin?



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