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It is said that the nodes communicate over tcp but how is that acheived across networks over different Nats

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different networks

Ordinary plain IP routing.

different Nats

The Bitcoin network protocol uses standard TCP sockets with a typical destination TCP-port number of 8333.

The use of Network Address Translation (NAT) by many last-hop routers makes it harder to connect to Bitcoin nodes that use IPV4 private addresses behind a router. In theory the use of IPV6 addresses should make this issue go away.

I believe the NAT traversal for Bitcoin IPV4 TCP connections probably uses whatever features are provided by the underlying network libraries and/or are configured in the OS by the end-user.

So far as I know, there isn't a Bitcoin-specific solution for this. There are a lot of general solutions that may be appropriate to use.

See

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  • Yes, there is nothing special about Bitcoin in this regard compared to e.g. a Minecraft server. It's just plain old TCP/IP. NAT traversal is another matter; if a node behind a NAT wants to be accessible on the public internet, the NAT needs to be configured to forward traffic sent to a particular port on the public address to the node.
    – Jivan Pal
    Dec 20, 2022 at 21:38

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