The format used for exporting the keys is the same for Andreas Schildbach's Bitcoin wallet and MultiBit so basically the answer is yes.
I have done it from my phone to MultiBit by emailing the private key backup from my phone and then importing it into a new wallet created in MultiBit. The encryption used is the same so the password you use to encrypt it on your phone is the one you use in MultiBit when you import it.
(You get an extra address in the newly created wallet in MultiBit by default - I just label it 'do not use' and never use it.)
I expect you could export it from MultiBit, copy onto an SD card and then import it on your phone to go the other way.