How to determine the transaction type using transaction hash?
There is no concept of type in the Bitcoin network. Therefore, neither transactions nor outputs nor inputs have a type. However, the outputs (locking scripts) are most often of a certain standard form, and the inputs then consume those standard outputs. Therefore, some group of output and input types is actually defined from those standard forms of output and input. It is important to understand that these types (P2PKH, P2SH etc.) exist only for end users and not for the Bitcoin network. The type of input or output is not indicated anywhere in the transaction.
Here you can see all types of output: link
Here you can see how to determine the input type: link
Based on everything written, the conclusion is that there is no transaction type, but only input and output type (although this is not part of the network). What we could potentially define as the type of transaction is whether it is a segregated witness (segwit) transaction or not, that is, whether some of the inputs consume a segwit output or such an input does not exist in the transaction. Such a transaction can be recognized very easily when looking at its raw (serialized) form. Namely, the value of the fifth byte is 0x00 and the value of the sixth byte is 0x01. If the fifth and sixth bytes are not set to these values, it is a non-segwit transaction.
Is there any way to identify the transaction type using the following data in Bitcoin blockchain:
No, you cannot determine either the output type, the input type, or the transaction type based on the given fields.