What are the differences between getwork and getblocktemplate? Who identified the need for the new protocol? Who were the primary contributors to its creation?
The simple answer is getwork is a miner that does its hashes and "gets work" from the pool. With getworktemplate the miner isn't limited to how much work it can do per second for mining. This is for Bitcoin mining. The current mining of Bitcoins has ASIC miners that can do more than 4 GHash of mining per second which doesn't leave a lot of work for the current getwork protocol.
More information can be found on the bitcoin wiki.