If I want to get all the Bitcoin transactions since it started, how do I go about doing this? Is it possible to get all that data from bitcoind database?
This is called the Blockchain. You can access it yourself if you use a client like the reference client, Bitcoin-QT. By reference, I mean that Bitcoin-QT downloads it to your disk... you have to write a program to access past transations, because Bitcoin-QT doesn't allow you to search past transactions other than your own.