I'm interested in getting data on bitcoin adoption by country. Is there a way of mapping bitcoin addresses to countries of origination?
Nate is right. But there is this tool:
which can help you see a particular currency's exchanges in and out of Bitcoin.
Euro, USD and Yuan are usually the most predominant.
That could possibly give you additional ideas on solving your problem.
Nate's answer is true about transactions generally, although companies like Chainalysis use sophisticated software and methods to try to find sources of transactions.
This may not be what you are looking for, but if you could do with geolocated non-hidden full node data, then I've written an open-access academic paper on Bitcoin full node data here, and the data is in the Electronic Supplements. I explain in the Appendix how I get and prepare the data if you need more fine-grained analyses. The data is country-year from 2014-2018.
PS: The data includes Bitcoin merchant data worldwide too. Please do cite the paper after use. Good luck!
No. Bitcoin addresses are designed to be anonymous and convey no information about the person or computer that generated them.
If you could somehow identify the owners of some addresses, then by observing transactions going to or from those addresses, you might be able to infer things about their counterparties. Then again, you might not. It certainly seems unlikely you'll get any useful large-scale statistics that way.