The script page of the bitcoin wiki tells us that:
- A transaction is valid if nothing in the combined script triggers failure and the top stack item is true (non-zero)
To validate a transaction's input, first the input's scriptSig is run, then the scriptPubKey of the output it's trying to spend is run.
The transactions in question have a scriptSig of '1' and the outputs they're spending have a scriptPubKey of OP_DUP OP_DUP OP_DUP. Running these will cause a '1' to be put onto the stack, and then for the '1' to be copied three times, ending up with a stack of: [1, 1, 1, 1]. The top stack item is non-zero, so it's fine.
To address your question about crypto signatures, while it's true that any OP_CHECKSIG in either script has to pass there was none in these scripts, so none of them were bad.
The current version of the client rejects "non standard" scriptPubKey scripts in the individual transactions that it receives from the network, and refuses to pass them on, but doesn't appear to do the same for transactions in already-mined blocks that it receives. So this block was likely mined by the person who made this transaction, using custom software.
Anybody seeing those outputs could have immediately claimed them. Note however that these easily-redeemed outputs were created and redeemed in the same block, leaving no risk of someone else redeeming them.