There are a few limitations on the structure of the coinbase (reward) transaction in a block.

  1. There is only one input. vin.size() == 1 (source)
  2. It doesn't reference any previous output. vin[0].prevout.IsNull() (source)
  3. The scriptSig is not too big. vin[0].scriptSig.size() <= 100 (source)
  4. The scriptSig is not too small. vin[0].scriptSig.size() >= 2 (source)

I don't see the point of any of these. #1 and #2 enable BIP34, but they are not necessary to achieve the same outcome. The size constraints don't really limit anything, if a miner wants to make a large block they can just many many outputs in their coinbase, or many many transactions into their block.

Why isn't a coinbase transaction just a transaction which:

  1. Has at least one input that doesn't reference any previous outputs (for use in BIP34)
  2. Allowed to claim up to (block reward + fees) more than it can spend

In particular, the coinbase could optionally have further null inputs and could spend previous outputs.

I know for Bitcoin it's likely too late for these to change. Is this a case of over-designing, or are there security reasons for any of these constraints on the coinbase? Loosening constraint #2, in particular, makes me pause because of a bitcoin development mailing list email concerning how allowing the coinbase to spend prevouts would enable securely paying a miner to mine a chain reorganization in a particular way.

  • #1 and #2 enable BIP34 Actually, block height goes in the scriptSig, not the prevout.
    – Nick ODell
    Jan 12, 2015 at 17:55
  • @NickODell, but the prevout being null makes it so that the scriptSig can contain anything, in particular it can contain the height.
    – morsecoder
    Jan 12, 2015 at 18:07

1 Answer 1


The correct answer is: ask Satoshi.

My guessed answers to the questions you asked:

  1. Why only one input? You can't predict when a particular coinbase transaction will make it into a successful block and you can't spend the output of a coinbase transaction for 100 blocks. That means using a regular transaction is much superior for any normal spending. If there's no normal case for adding inputs to a coinbase, maybe Satoshi thought it best to disallow inputs to prevent un-thought-of attacks.

  2. Why reference a null outpoint? Using the same basic format as a regular transaction probably allowed code reuse. If he had optimized the coinbase, we would've saved 36 bytes times 338,692 blocks (so far), or about 12 MB. Not a big deal.

  3. Why limit coinbase size to 100 bytes? We know Satoshi used the coinbase to put a message in block 0. Maybe a 100-byte limit was his attempt to prevent anyone else from using that same mechanism to add overlong messages. This was probably quite smart: from the fairly early days through today, many miners add messages to all of their coinbases---we can only imagine how annoying and wasteful those messages would be if they weren't limited to 100 bytes.

  4. Why specify minimum coinbase size as 2 bytes? Highly speculative here, but maybe Satoshi foresaw the easy-duplication-of-coinbases described in BIP30 and wanted to require people use something like the original extranonce to help prevent accidental TXID collisions.

  • About #1, can you think of any such un-thought-of attacks? Possibly related to the paying a miner to mine a re-org in a certain way? I don't know how that would work. In #2, I'm assuming the optimization you're referring to is to not need to specify the prevout (32 bytes) and the index (4 bytes). I think your guess #3 makes a lot of sense.
    – morsecoder
    Jan 12, 2015 at 18:59
  • #1 Well, when Satoshi made the design decision, consensus rules didn't reject blocks with that didn't include block height (that came with BIP34, so the attack you're describing didn't work. However, paying a specific miner for creating a block is anti-decentralization---if you're paying a specific miner, you're probably not encouraging decentralized mining using tx fees. #2 Yes, I'm talking about the coinbase's outpoint which uses a static prevout and an ignored vout. Jan 12, 2015 at 19:18

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