By following Recovering Bitcoin private keys using weak signatures from the blockchain, I am able to do other calculations, but I have no idea how to calculate Z1 or Z2. There was a public code available by Sean Bradley:


But it does not seems to work now. Is there some other public code to calculate Z1 and Z2 in any language. I can convert it to the language of my preference. Any help is appreciated.

  • Could you maybe describe what you want this for? I don't want to unintentionally help someone steal other people's bitcoins. – David A. Harding Jan 17 '15 at 19:14
  • @DavidA.Harding I am a security researcher and want to replicate this attack. All the vulnerable addresses are already on internet and empty. And vulnerable applications are already fixed. I just want to replicate this nothing else. – user1111111111111 Jan 17 '15 at 21:11
  • I provided an answer. However, the attack Nils's describes is just a basic re-used k value attack. If you really want to replicate it, you'll find it much simpler jettisoning Bitcoin's baggage and doing the math for your own arbitrary hashed data. Even Wikipedia has instructions for doing this. – David A. Harding Jan 17 '15 at 21:46

According to Nils's post, the z values are the hashes that get signed in the ECDSA formula. Background on what data goes into these hashes can be found on the OP_CHECKSIG wiki page and Krzysztof Okupski's excellent developer reference PDF.

Bitcoin Core's code for generating the hashes is here. Any other Bitcoin application that signs transactions (or verifies signatures) must have a compatible function (at least for the default SIGHASH_ALL), so you should be able to find an implementation in pretty much any popular programming language.


paste your transaction into this page https://2xoin.com/getRSZfromRawTX/

it will give you all the R,S and Z if it was able to decode the TX.

for example, 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

will output

    "sigR": "d47ce4c025c35ec440bc81d99834a624875161a26bf56ef7fdc0f5d52f843ad1",
    "sigS": "44e1ff2dfd8102cf7a47c21d5c9fd5701610d04953c6836596b4fe9dd2f53e3e",
    "sigZ": "c0e2d0a89a348de88fda08211c70d1d7e52ccef2eb9459911bf977d587784c6e",
    "pubKey": "04dbd0c61532279cf72981c3584fc32216e0127699635c2789f549e0730c059b81ae133016a69c21e23f1859a95f06d52b7bf149a8f2fe4e8535c8a829b449c5ff",
    "N": 0
    "sigR": "d47ce4c025c35ec440bc81d99834a624875161a26bf56ef7fdc0f5d52f843ad1",
    "sigS": "9a5f1c75e461d7ceb1cf3cab9013eb2dc85b6d0da8c3c6e27e3a5a5b3faa5bab",
    "sigZ": "17b0f41c8c337ac1e18c98759e83a8cccbc368dd9d89e5f03cb633c265fd0ddc",
    "pubKey": "04dbd0c61532279cf72981c3584fc32216e0127699635c2789f549e0730c059b81ae133016a69c21e23f1859a95f06d52b7bf149a8f2fe4e8535c8a829b449c5ff",
    "N": 1

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