If a double-spend attack is pulled off, how to manually verify transactions via the bitcoin daemon and how to know how much amount lost? Will the saved transaction hash be re-usable to obtain info about the transactions using
Is it possible to pull off the attack after 48 hours?
You can just wait for enough confirmations. Most wallet and blockchain websites will show you the number of confirmations for a transaction id.
If it is a small transaction (less than 100 Bitcoins) then waiting for 3 confirmations should be enough. 6 confirmations means that roughly 10% of the network has confirmed your transaction and is the ball park used by many cautious services.
Every confirmation takes a minimum of around 10 minutes.
It has happened less than 15 times that transactions with 3-4 confirmations were reversed and it has happened almost 1000 times that transactions with only one confirmation was reversed. (What is the longest blockchain fork that has been orphaned to date?)
So, technically, it's really so difficult to pull off a double spend after 50 minutes, that nobody has ever done it.
If it does happen, the whole transaction basically just "never happened" so the transaction doesn't take place and the whole amount is "lost".