How much will transaction fees eventually be? describes that current transaction fees are untenable. The transaction cost for users, I think should be the only upward driver for the price of bitcoin. Ripple has played out the transaction cost economy by centralizing the transaction processing (if I understand correctly). But, this is because traditional banks already have a real 'reputation to uphold', which is of course a reputation of paying enormous fines for untoward doings. Anyway, what coin offers a decentralized ledger, without the mining and transaction costs?