Is there a reference that can give me information on the programming languages used in Blockchain development?

For example, Bitcoin is C++, Ethereum makes use of C++, Golang and Python, whilst its smart contracts are based usually on Solidity, Serpent and LLL.

What about other (more enterprise based) implementations? Ripple, Hyperledger, Quorum, Multichain, Monax.

1 Answer 1


I think you are confusing some things here. A blockchain like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, or Hyperledger is a protocol in first place. And a protocol is agnostic to programming languages used.

What you are relating to are reference implementations of the protocol. The Bitcoin protocol has the famous Bitcoin implementation (later Bitcoin Core) initially written by Satoshi Nakamoto in C++. But there are so much more clients available in so much more programming languages.

Ethereum, for instance, has three reference implementations, the Eth client in C++, the Geth client in Go-Lang, and the PyEthApp in Python. And there are even more implementations in Rust, Ruby, etc. available.

I could go on with the other blockchains you mentioned, but you get the idea. A protocol can be implemented in any suitable language if desired. If you want an exotic example, have a look at Lisk which tries to build the full blockchain stack in pure JavaScript.

  • An interesting case is R3 Corda, which is written in a not-so mainstream language Kotlin (recently added to the Android development kit). Some use functional languages like Scala and Haskell. Commented Aug 7, 2017 at 19:16
  • and Aeternity uses ERLANG to code their crypto currency. A language designed by Ericson for telecom applications. Commented Aug 8, 2017 at 6:58
  • Thank you for the clarification, I was indeed confusing some things, but this is also the information I want. So by all means go on. If I understood correctly, implementations are built on top of the protocol and can be programmed in various languages. Am I right?
    – DottoreM
    Commented Aug 8, 2017 at 11:47
  • 1
    Yes, that's what I tried to say with that answer.
    – q9f
    Commented Aug 8, 2017 at 11:56

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