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Ethereum wallets can be associated with Exchanges (e.g. Etherscan.io will tell you if an address is a Poloniex one).

Is this possible for Bitcoin addresses?

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Yes, in theory is possible to guess the ownership of an address to an Exchange.

Notice that I said in theory and I also mentioned that it's a guess. That's because per design each address is anonymous. However, since the blockchain is public, you can analyze the type and amount of transactions getting in and out a specific address and make assumptions based on patterns.

An exchange has generally a large amount of transactions. If they use a finite amount of addresses, eventually transactions will reuse existing addresses.

If you provide a tool or a way for people to publicly share/associate specific addresses with Exchanges, then eventually you will build an archive of matches. I believe this is what Etherscan does.

  • If they use a finite amount of addresses, eventually transactions will reuse existing addresses. That's mathematically true, but the number of possible addresses is so large that reuse will not happen before the sun goes out. In practice an exchange will never reuse a deposit address, and so the technique you describe will not be useful. – Nate Eldredge Jan 15 '18 at 20:11
  • @NateEldredge That's not quite true. Many exchanges will provide one address to a user, leading to eventual reuse if the user makes multiple deposits. It is possible to identify the random address->desposit address->exchange hot/cold wallet trail given enough data points. – Raghav Sood May 22 '18 at 2:40

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