I am writing a thesis about blockchain and part of my writing is the history of blockchain, so far I found the first proposal was “How to Time-Stamp a Digital Document” in 1991 by Haber and Stornetta. Source: https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-history-of-blockchain-technology

The second proposal was by the unknown Satoshi Nakamoto, “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”.

So my question is there any other proposals before the Bitcoin implementation of blockchain?

  • 3
    I have an article here that covers some of the precursors. The Princeton Bitcoin Book also goes into some more details. Apr 6, 2018 at 13:29

1 Answer 1


In addition to "How to Time-Stamp a Digital Document", in 1992, Bayer, Haber and Stornetta incorporated Merkle trees to the design, which improved its efficiency by allowing several documents to be collected into one block in a book "Improving the Efficiency and Reliability of Digital Time-Stamping"

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