Where can I find out what company is associated to the address I sent a payment too?
You usually cannot.
Bitcoin addresses are not explicitly linked to companies or people, unless they decide to publicize that they own an address (or receive funds from it via a third-party custodian).
There is no directory or listing of who owns which address, although some companies and explorers try to tag major addresses to exchanges etc.
You can attempt to follow the BTC from that address and see if it touches a known address. That might give you a lead as to which company is being used to store/cash out Bitcoin by the company you made the payment to. However, if the company you paid has their own system and doesn't cash out frequently, you won't really find anything actionable.
In Bitcoin, you need to verify that you're sending to the right address before sending. Usually this works by the recipient of the payment sending you a payment request with a destination address. If you're unsure whether the source is authentic, verify your information on a second channel.