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I read several articles about how Block chain works, but didn't found any explanation about the following issue:

When new nodes (with empty ledger) entered to block chain, how they can check the correctness of the transaction, if their ledger is empty ?

How new nodes get synchronized with the block chain (get the list of the blocks, and all the history of the transactions ) ?

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When new nodes (with empty ledger) entered to block chain, how they can check the correctness of the transaction, if their ledger is empty ?

It cannot. It must sync the entire blockchain first.

How new nodes get synchronized with the block chain (get the list of the blocks, and all the history of the transactions ) ?

A new node will connect to other nodes in the Bitcoin network. It does this through the peer discovery mechanism which uses DNS seeders and seed nodes to find nodes to connect to. From there it requests from its peers the blockchain and is thus able to download the entire blockchain. Of course the new node will also fully verify all blocks and transactions in what it receives to ensure that the data is correct and valid.

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