There are suggestions that blockchains concept can go beyond crypto currency such as votings etc. My question is that in those cases how could a “proof of work” is enforced? I guess adding any new blocks to the chains always require various kind of “independent” check. Without any incentives how could pow be done fairly?
Most current such systems (Ethereum, Neo, WAVES, etc.) rely on proof of work to secure the blockchain and issue the native token (ether and waves are issued, Neo was all generated at genesis).
The incentives in these cases are:
- Transaction fees gained by executing contract transactions
- Block reward, if it exists
There are also a number of private blockchain systems, such as Hyperledger, where the incentive is that the businesses maintaining the network will presumably reap some benefit from its continued functioning.
Enterprise blockchains do not rely on Proof-of-Work (PoW). For example, Hyperledger Sawtooth uses Proof-of-Elapsed Time (PoET), which is a Nakamoto-style consensus algorithm without the energy-wasteful "mining" PoW algorithm and without miners or digital currency.