The limitation is a relay standard, but not a consensus rule. This can be modified on a per-node basis with
$ bicoind -datacarriersize flag. The consensus rule that would limit this is the max block size, if I'm not mistaken. So, presumably, miners connected to the node that accepted that non-standard transaction mined that block, thus it was non-standard, but still valid.
These rules are enforced during mempool acceptance. Each node can decide to implement different rules, provided they follow consensus rules, but many just accept the Bitcoin-core defaults upon installation. In this case 80 bytes is the default setting for
OP_RETURN data size.
These rules are enforced at the block validation phase. These cannot be different between nodes or it would be considered a hard fork and the chains would diverge.