Not really. When a node sends out a block, it doesn't indicate whether it mined the block itself, or whether it's relaying a block received from another node. The intention is that mining, like other aspects of Bitcoin, can be done anonymously, so the miner has plausible deniability.
If you have a large number of nodes on the network, then you could see which of them received the block first, and the peer who sent it is somewhat more likely to be the actual miner. Some block explorers do this and report that peer's IP address, marked something like "relayed by".