I know there is a project libbitcoin-qt.vcxproj, but I have issues with building it. Is there another solution how to build bitcoin-qt.exe (only VS)?
There is documentation about how to build with visual studio on this link. It works fine for me.
Independently of how you go about doing this, building with VS is not a recommended or supported configuration (beyond testing reasons). If you run a system built that way you lose the advantage of the enormous amount of testing put in by users and developers on the supported builds.
At a minimum you should make sure that all the functional tests pass on your build, though this is generally good advice for any build.