If I run a node with prune=550 does the Bitcoin Daemon still receive update tips (mined blocks) just as fast as a full node?
A pruned node is a full node. "Full node" means fully validating and enforcing the Bitcoin rule. Pruning just means that the node does not bother keeping old historical data that is never used for anything except helping new nodes sync up, wallet rescans, and similar.
Pruning will not impact validation performance other than perhaps there may be some small latency spikes created by periodically deleting old blockfiles, or small latency improvements from not participating in feeding historic blocks to newly syncing peers.