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I've learned that the different criptocurrencies have their own P2P software which uses their own blockchain network to work. So how does exactly occurs the process of exchanging one coin to another as the blockchains are different? Do they have some kind of special protocol communication? What the exchanges perfoms under the hood to make it happen?

And if the different blockchains really communicate to each other, how is that communication done?

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    They don't communicate. Exchanging works in the real world: you send me X of coin1, I send you Y of coin2. – Pieter Wuille Jan 20 at 15:28
  • There are ways to swap cryptocurrencies of certain types in an atomic fashion. See atomic swaps: bitcoin.stackexchange.com/a/54141/90088 – James C. Jan 20 at 15:50
  • @PieterWuille So why is needed a few confirmations at blockchain when i'm exchanging cryptocurrencies? I'm trying to understand what happens under the hood of a simple exchange of cryptocurrencies. – Emerson Oliveira Jan 20 at 15:52
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You cannot just exchange two cryptocurrencies with one another that easy.
You will need a middleman like an exchange to do this.

An alternative is Atomic swaps. But it's still more experimental.
You can learn more at it here:

Atomic Swaps have been implemented in the lightning Network(Just as proof of concept!!)

Nevertheless, it's just a proof of concept and experimental. Exchanging one coin for another is done either by exchange or by communicating on the real world.

  • Thanks @dvg . Can you elaborate on your answer what's the process taken onto the exchange when exchanging two cryptocurrencies? – Emerson Oliveira Jan 20 at 16:26
  • I don't know for sure how an exchange works internally. Basically, you deposit some cryptocurrencies there and can change them for another. Like when you exchange Fiat currencies. Technically it's specific to the specific exchange. – dvg Jan 20 at 18:17
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The exchanges do not turn a cryptocurrency into another, they just buy and sell them for you to somebody else within the exchange. For swapping the coins there is the already mentioned experimental atomic swap technology which could be revolutionary and potentially disruptive for traditional exchanges.

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