I have a btc node (Bitcoin Core version v0.17.0.1 (64-bit))running on my Windows 10 computer, as part of regular backup I have realized I don't have the seed words but I do have the passphrase. It has a zero balance, wallet.dat is backed up - is there a way to recover the seed words in this scenario? I'm never going to use a Windows node to store any significant amount of coin, but I'd still like to know what my options are.
Bitcoin Core does not use a seed phrase. Your password is simply the encryption password for the wallet.dat file. No private keys are derived from the password. In order to recover your Bitcoin, you must have the wallet.dat file.