This kind of statement does not hold.
As RedGrittyBrick's answer mentions, bitcoin has no real concept of people, or individual contributions. Multiple inputs in a transaction might be controlled by a single entity, or multiple entities (multisig) may control a single input. There is no real relation between the number of inputs, distinct or otherwise, and the number/weight of a participant in a transaction.
This is further affected by actions such as a coinjoin, where multiple independent transactions may be combined into a single larger transaction, consisting of all the inputs of the smaller ones, and all of their outputs. In fact, coinjoins are performed because people and some tracking systems view transactions as you described, by trying to link inputs and their btc to outputs, and distribute "ownership" and responsibility proportionally to the BTC value of the input. However, as this concept does not directly translate into or accurately represent the nature of the transaction, it cannot be viewed as a "correct" interpretation.
After all, in your example tx, what stops me from saying that each input is responsible for exactly 2 of the outputs, and contributed nothing to the other 8? Or, why not say that inputs 1, 3, and 5 are responsible for outputs 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, and not for 2, 4, 8, and 10? Why distribute their contributions equally to each output?