My understanding of Schnorr signatures, Taproot and Graftroot and how they improve privacy in smart contracts / multi-sig is by allowing users to aggregate signatures so the individual signatures and keys are not visible but summed in the aggregate key / sig.

Are there any cryptographic protocols that allow the summing of UTXO inputs? So for example multiple inputs in a transaction were summed to one aggregate input and then signed with the sum of the input private keys?

Is it possible to improve privacy of UTXO consolidation?

1 Answer 1


Yes, I believe that the accumulator constructions as described here are a good candidate. The same idea applied to Bitcoin is implemented by Tadge Dryja here

  • 2
    That's really not what accumulators do. They're a mechanism for validating unspentness of individual, identifiable, separate UTXOs without maintaining an explicit database on them (and instead relying on proofs that they were indeed unspent). There are no privacy gains from that. Jul 27, 2019 at 17:14

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