Blockchain.info (and other block explorers) do additional processing of the transaction data in order to make it more user friendly to follow the path of coin movement through multiple transactions. Additionally, it seems that whatever you are using to print out the transaction details is not showing you all of the information.
In a transaction, each input specifies the output that it is spending by using the transaction id of the transaction containing that output, and the 0-based index of that output in the list of outputs. Blockchain.info in their own internal databases links these two transactions together thus allowing you to visit the page for the previous transaction.
They display addresses in inputs because they inspect the output that is being spent, determine the address it corresponds to, and shows that address as the input for a transaction. Bitcoin does not actually use addresses and you won't see addresses in the inputs of transactions.
For the outputs, it appears that whatever software you are using is not displaying the full output information. Outputs contain both an amount and an output script which is not being shown to you. This output script typically corresponds to an address, so blockchain.info will determine the corresponding address for an output script (if it has one) and display that. Because they have databases that index addresses and their transactions, they are able to both give you a list of transactions for a particular address as well as point you to the transaction that spends that output.