First, some background.

1. There are some coordinates x,y satisfying y^2(mod p)=x^3+7(mod p) on the Secp256k1 curve that do not correspond to a valid Bitcoin uncompressed publicKey of the form 04[x,y].

We can prove 1 using the random_point() function in Sage with unknown generator underE=EllipticCurve(GF(modi), [0,7]). If we get lucky, after a few trials Sage returns a point such as Q.


   (B8F0170E293FCC9291BEE2665E9CA9B25D3B11810ED68D9EA0CB440D7064E4DA : 
    691AA44502212591132AA6F27582B78F9976998DE355C4EE5960DB05AC0A2A3 : 1)

Now we have:


We verify that Qy^2(mod p) = Qx^3+7 (mod p) is satisfied so we confirm that Q is a point on the Secp256k1 curve.

Next, we try to validate Q as an uncompressed Bitcoin publicKey:


We get: Q is not a valid publicKey.

Yet, checking the validity of the mirrored point -Q, returns a valid publicKey:


Valid publicKey for -Q:


Valid publicKey for -Q (hashed):



Why not every [x,y] coordinate on the Secp256k1 curve corresponds to a valid uncompressed publicKey?


In this question, by validity I mean a set of EC coordinates (x,y) that can be hashed into a bitcoin uncompressed address. I am specifying uncompressed for obvious reasons. My question is detailed enough I hope to show that it's not referring to compressed Bitcoin addresses.

1 Answer 1


Both are valid public keys just that in the first case the uncompressed public key is not represented in a valid hexadecimal format. If you look closely, your Qy has 63 hexadecimal digits (so there is a 'half-byte'). Although hashing can be done in bit boundaries, most standard implementations out there do not support it. Just try to concatenate '0' at the start of the Qy to get Qy = 0691AA44502212591132AA6F27582B78F9976998DE355C4EE5960DB05AC0A2A3 so that you get a full byte. So now your uncompressed public key is 04B8F0170E293FCC9291BEE2665E9CA9B25D3B11810ED68D9EA0CB440D7064E4DA0691AA44502212591132AA6F27582B78F9976998DE355C4EE5960DB05AC0A2A3, which would hash to P2PKH address: 17Y1XJiC72f2kyJnzwBdkaPQEGgaD1aroR

  • Excellent! Thanks for your prompt answer.
    – Robert
    Jul 15, 2019 at 12:18

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