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But does every peer node in the bitcoin p2p network need to have ports forwarded in order to participate? Otherwise, how does the p2p network work in the Bitcoin network?

I heard that there are some technologies for implementing peer-to-peer networks such as UPnP and Hole Punching, does Bitcoin use any of these technologies for its p2p network?

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Nodes that participate in the Bitcoin network run a computer program such as this one: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin, which dictates how everything works.

To answer your more specific questions:

  • No modern versions include UPnP. – Anonymous Sep 29 at 19:18

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