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As far as I know, IPv4 and IPv6 are two different protocols and direct connection between an IPv4 and IPv6 cannot be established. If I run a full node with only IPv4, can my node connect to another node with IPv6 only? If no, why do I sometimes see my node's peers are IPv6?

Likewise, is it true that nodes with IPv6 can only connect to other nodes with IPv6? Since there are only about 1000+ IPv6 full nodes in the network now, isn't that they have much fewer choices of peers?

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No. IPv4 can not connect to IPv6. They’re almost completely disjoint networks except for the fact that some nodes can be dual stack with both, or many of each type routed.

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  • Does that mean a full node may have 2 different IPs, one is IPv4 and one is IPv6? – Muoi Tran Jun 8 '20 at 1:23
  • That’s correct. It can have an arbitrarily number of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses as listening sockets. – Anonymous Jun 8 '20 at 1:23
  • Can we assume that all the nodes with IPv6 (bitnodes.io/nodes) also have IPv4 enabled? Otherwise, these nodes can only connect to other IPv6 nodes. – Muoi Tran Jun 8 '20 at 1:25
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    Generally the opposite isn't true. An IPv6-only system can connect to the IPv4 world (as the IPv4 address space is embedded in the IPv6 one). – Pieter Wuille Jun 8 '20 at 5:05

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