There have been both changes to the P2P protocol that prevent this, and changes to the way that nodes are discovered.
The method which 0.1.0 discovered new nodes was by joining the #bitcoin channel on freenode. Your IP address would be encoded in a certain way and that would be the IRC nick for your node. However this has long since been removed from the Bitcoin software and any node that does connect to the #bitcoin channel will be kicked from it (the encoding is unique and identifiable).
Since 0.1.0 can't connect to the IRC channel to discover new nodes, it is unable to learn about nodes that it can connect to.
Furthermore, the P2P protocol has changed since 0.1.0 was released and thus 0.1.0 is unable to communicate with modern nodes. This change was to add a checksum to the end of the P2P message header. Messages without this checksum will be rejected by modern nodes.
Lastly, 0.1.0 is too old so modern nodes won't connect to it. They have a minimum supported protocol version number, and 0.1.0's protocol version number is far too low. So even if you could get it to connect, the connection would be dropped.
The way to deal with the node discovery issue is to manually modify the peers.dat file to have the IP address and port of nodes that you want to connect to.
The only way to deal with the P2P protocol changes (checksum and version number) is to have a shim that sits in between all of your connections and modifies the P2P messages to work with modern node software. Or you can connect to a modified node which can deal with 0.1.0 traffic.
Even if you are able to connect to the Bitcoin network with 0.1.0, you won't be able to mine anything as the CPU mining is no longer viable, and the CPU miner implementation in 0.1.0 is not efficient. You also wouldn't be able to even sync as it syncs too slowly. Blocks will be found faster than it is able to process them. It will run into additional issues when it receives a new block before it is able to sync the blockchain that precedes that block.