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In proof-of-stake, by definition, each stakeholder deposits and locks some tokens (stakes) for more chances to be selected as an author of block in a random-based election procedure.

Till here, it's clear.

But, as the system is not centralized and there is no server which would do the election procedure, each stakeholder installs a client application on their machine to do the random-based selection procedure.

The question is what happens if a stakeholder manipulates the client application, such that he could always be elected as an author of block?

In other words, who (or which entity) does the random election procedure in each round?

P.S. If the question is not still clear enough, please let me know.

 

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Obviously the block author selection cannot be random if all network participants must converge on the same choice. In some systems, the selection is based on previous blockdata which is assumed to have pseudorandom properties and is already agreed upon. Some of these approaches are considered gameable, but it appears that many networks have come to the conclusion that POS is unreliable in absence of a coordinating entity anyway.

The question is what happens if a stakeholder manipulates the client application, such that he could always be elected as a validator?

Under the premise that "the system is not centralized", what you do with your own node software has zero bearing on other nodes. When you manipulate your own node to follow different protocol rules, you most likely just fork off from the network which has no impact on the remaining network whatsoever.

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  • So my point of view is not very precise on functionality of PoS ... Could you please mention any reference explaining about this pseudorandom blockdata? Thanks – Questioner Sep 17 at 19:45
  • Blocks are usually represented with the hash of their header. The output of a hash function is deterministic in that it will always have the same outcome for the same input, but the output is uniformly distributed in the projection space and cannot be predicted before performing the hash for the first time. Therefore, the block hash can be used as a pseudorandom source. – Murch Sep 17 at 19:55
  • "So my point of view is not very precise on functionality of PoS" ⇒ that's because POS is a consensus approach and there are many different implementations of it. It's difficult to give a precise answer to a vague question. – Murch Sep 17 at 19:58
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    I don't remember the details, I don't find POS particularly relevant or interesting. I would suggest searching for the Peercoin whitepaper or announcement, or reading the Ethereum Casper documentation. – Murch Sep 17 at 20:04
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    I'm honestly curious, though. You've been asking questions here for years, about rather obscure topics but missing fairly well-known facts or details in the context. Where are all these questions coming from? How did you arrive at all these special topics but skipped over all the basic concepts? – Murch Sep 17 at 20:07

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