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Questions tagged [bip32-hd-wallets]

BIP32, or Hierarchical Deterministic Wallets. HD wallets are wallets that can be shared amongst different wallet implementation with or without the ability to spend coins. https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/master/bip-0032.mediawiki

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ELI5: What's the difference between a child-key and a hardened child-key in BIP32

I've read BIP32, and I do understand it more or less. Could someone please explain to me like I'm 5 years old what the difference between a child-key and a hardened child-key is? I'm trying to add ...
Amin Shah Gilani's user avatar
27 votes
2 answers
37k views

What is the wallet "word seed" that is commonly used in popular wallets clients and what does it do?

I've been using a pretty old version of Multibit classic and recently decided to upgrade. I tried out Multibit HD and Electrum and noticed that both have me set up a wallet with a "word seed"...
user avatar
24 votes
1 answer
5k views

Derivation of parent private key from non-hardened child

Quote from BIP 32: One weakness that may not be immediately obvious, is that knowledge of a parent extended public key plus any non-hardened private key descending from it is equivalent to knowing ...
meshcollider's user avatar
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21 votes
4 answers
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How are different addresses generated from the same private key?

I was reading in the "Technical background of version 1 Bitcoin addresses" that addresses are a function of the private key. More or less: Private Key -> Public Key -> Address If the ...
ciczan's user avatar
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19 votes
1 answer
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What is the status of hierarchical deterministic wallets (BIP32)

BIP32 specifies hierarchical deterministic wallets, where a master seed fully determines a whole tree of keypairs that can be arbitrarily branched. It also introduces the notions of internal and ...
Noah's user avatar
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16 votes
3 answers
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Key derivation in HD wallets using the extended private key vs hardened derivation

I am reading the book Mastering Bitcoin and confused about wallet key derivations in Chapter 4. Keys, Addresses, Wallets. The book first mentions a private child key derivation where the child ...
user1's user avatar
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12 votes
2 answers
3k views

Best Practices for hardened keys in HD wallets?

Essentially, I am seeking to know where in an HD wallet tree structure should hardened keys be used. For example: Shouldn't all child keys of the master extended key be hardened? Should all extended ...
morsecoder's user avatar
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11 votes
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What BIP32 derivation path does Electrum use?

Electrum 2.0 and up uses BIP0032 internally. I want to write code that generates the same addresses. I can't find any information about this online. What BIP32 paths does it use to generate addresses?...
Nick ODell's user avatar
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11 votes
1 answer
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Is the Electrum seed compatible with other wallets?

Apologies if this is a simple question - a newbie here! I'm trying to understand backups. If I use Electrum to make a back up (including the 12 word seed password), will I then need to use Electrum to ...
Nag's user avatar
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9 votes
2 answers
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BIP32 recommends a 256 bit seed. Why do most Bitcoin wallets only use a 128 bit seed?

According to BIP32's "Master key generation" section, "256 bits is advised". See https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/master/bip-0032.mediawiki#Master_key_generation Why did BIP32 consider 256 bits ...
knaccc's user avatar
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9 votes
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How to restore Bitcoin Core HD wallet private keys by master key?

Since version 0.13.0 Bitcoin Core supports HD wallets. In a .txt dump of the wallet (created by JSON-RPC dumpwallet command), one can find an "extended private masterkey" which is intended to be used ...
talalai88's user avatar
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8 votes
4 answers
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What BIP32 derivation path does Electrum use for Multisig?

Same question as What BIP32 derivation path does Electrum use? but for multisig. thanks.
joe.js's user avatar
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8 votes
3 answers
6k views

Pros/Cons/Limitations of Mnemonic Phrases - BIP39

BIP39 mnemonic phrases replace considerations about how to store one private key, with considerations about how to store the seed to a series of private keys. The idea is that the private keys are ...
CQM's user avatar
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8 votes
3 answers
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How can extended public keys generate child public keys without generating the child private key in HD wallets?

According to the documentation on bitcoin.org and the Mastering Bitcoin book, you can use an extended public key to create child public keys in HD wallets by combining the lefthand side of the hash ...
Seb's user avatar
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8 votes
4 answers
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HD wallets and address reuse

HD wallets create a series of addresses, and then when one address has received an input it will give you a new address that hasn't received inputs yet So in the idea of you sending yourself bitcoin ...
CQM's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
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How to get public master key of a Ledger wallet?

I have a ledger Nano S and would like to know how to extract the public master key of its wallet, in order to do HD key derivation in an external process. Is there a way or is this info never exposed ...
knocte's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
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Retrieving all the funds from BIP32 derived wallets

An ecommerce site is using BIP32 wallets for receiving order payments from a tree of child keys where each leaf node is unique to one purchase transaction. Is it common for the site to immediately ...
Nyxynyx's user avatar
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7 votes
3 answers
11k views

How do I view the extended public key in Electrum?

Someone's asking for my extended public key. How do I view this? What are the consequences of giving this to someone? Can they steal my Bitcoins if I give this to someone?
Nick ODell's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
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difference between Master Public/private Key and Public/private Key?

what is difference between Master Public Key (MPK) and Public Key? what is difference between Master Private Key and Private Key? should I use master public key (MPK) when generating address or public ...
max's user avatar
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7 votes
3 answers
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Does Bitcoin Core support HD wallet?

Does Bitcoin Core (bitcoind or bitcoin-cli) support HD wallet? Can Bitcoin Core ... Q1. create HD wallets? Q2. import HD wallets from other wallet software? Q3. watch HD wallet? (watch transaction ...
Satoshi Nakanishi's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
964 views

How does the client know the number of keys and coins when recovering from a seed?

When I have a seed and use it to recover my keys, how does a client find out which keys I had and their respective amounts? To clarify, I understand how a deterministic key works and that we can ...
Daniel's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
7k views

How many combinations are there from the BIP32 mnemonic list?

As I understand for BIP32. There are 2048 words. 12 words would give you 2048^12 combinations. However, not all combinations are valid because of the checksum, so how do i calculate the actual space?...
Kyle Graham's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
922 views

If a single private key of the HD bitcoin account is compromised, is the whole HD account compromised?

The subject pretty much asks it all. I asked the same question on the Mycelium web site but did not get an answer. An HD account can have multiple private keys. Suppose one of the previous private ...
Mr Z's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
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Why does BIP44 use non-hardened paths at all?

BIP44 uses hardening/private derivation on most levels: m / purpose' / coin_type' / account' / change / address_index but not on the change and address_index level. First of all, what does hardening ...
Giszmo's user avatar
  • 304
7 votes
1 answer
930 views

Why is a chain code needed for entropy in HD wallets?

In the documents and articles I have read, it is stated that the "chain code" in HD wallets exists to provide entropy to the derivation of child public/private keys. If I understand the process ...
Stephen's user avatar
  • 173
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

How does Electrum make a keypair out of a seed?

Electrum uses a seed of 12 words to generate a keypair and then hierarchically generates addresses out of that keypair. I know how to generate hierarchic addresses from a keypair, but what I don't ...
Mr Jones's user avatar
  • 548
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

Determining xprv from xpub and child private key

I'm confused by the wording in BIP0032: One weakness that may not be immediately obvious, is that knowledge of a parent extended public key plus any non-hardened private key descending from it ...
maletor's user avatar
  • 173
6 votes
2 answers
854 views

XPRIV/XPUB type for P2TR

As far as I understand, there is a standard that describes what address types an extended private key or extended public key is intended to derive and it works as such: xpriv/xpub => Legacy ...
Dalit Sairio's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
4k views

How to use NBitcoin for BIP32 wallets

I'm using c# NBitcoin to generate master key at an offline server ExtKey privateKey = new ExtKey("[My seed]"); ExtPubKey pubKey = privateKey.Neuter(); I will need to give the online server the ...
Haddar Macdasi's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
3k views

How Do HD Wallets Keep Track of all accounts?

If a HD Wallet generates 1,000 accounts for example. How would they keep track of all of the account's balances, if someone for example, paid into the 455th account, they would want to update the ...
Kyle Graham's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
360 views

Multi-sig N of M where 1 of the keys can see the balance but not spend (read-only key)?

If I had a non-HD multi-sig wallet, checking the balance of it would be trivial (I would just look at the blockchain to see the address' balance, without the need to hold a key). However, with HD ...
knocte's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
4k views

Recovering a HD wallet from a partial seed phrase

I am attempting to help recover a wallet where the owner only wrote down 11 of the 12 words in the seed phrase. Initially, I thought the task would be a quick and well-defined, but it appears to be a ...
LivingInformation's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
10k views

Find all used addresses using xpub key

I currently use a Ledger wallet and find it a hassle to plug it in every time I want to check my balance. I have access to my master xpub key, how would I find out all the addresses corresponding to ...
Whyte the Weeabear's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
484 views

Python library for Multisignature HD wallets

Is there is any python library is available that allow creation of Multisignature HD wallets ?
Pankaj Kumar's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
478 views

Why do the xpubs from electrum and trezor not match when creating a multisig wallet?

For a little background, I am trying to set up a 2-of-3 multisig wallet with 2 trezors and a coldcard. I am trying to verify that my setup is correct before putting any meaningful amount of money in ...
paddy's user avatar
  • 195
6 votes
1 answer
2k views

How do I remove Wallet from Bcoin?

I'm playing with bcoin cli and created lots of wallets. Is there any way to remove wallet via WalletDB Api?
Node's user avatar
  • 316
6 votes
3 answers
909 views

Is it possible to check if a bitcoin address "belongs to" a master public key from a deterministic wallet?

Let's say I have a Master Public Key (MPK) and have a derived some addresses from it. How can I check later if a given address was derived from my MPK?
Robert-Reinder Nederhoed's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
468 views

Tainting with HD wallets

I'm having trouble understanding HD wallet privacy... for one thing, what if I want to send more money than I have in any of my individual derived addresses? Then I would have to use more than one, ...
Elliot Gorokhovsky's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
765 views

Should the BIP 39 mnemonic sentence checksum be eliminated from the standard? Does it do more harm than good?

Should the BIP 39 checksum be eliminated from the standard? Should the BIP39 checksum be made optional to improve security?
Michael Folkson's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
2k views

HMAC "Bitcoin Seed" for BIP32

Pybitcointools uses the following code for calculating a master private key (BIP32) from a seed: def bip32_master_key(seed, vbytes=MAINNET_PRIVATE): I = hmac.new(from_string_to_bytes("Bitcoin ...
Wizard Of Ozzie's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
991 views

Can I verify a sub public key came from it's parent public key in a HD wallet without involving any private keys?

I know I can sign a piece of text using a bitcoin private key to prove control over a public address but are there any operations I can perform to know if a public key submitted to me was derived from ...
derrend's user avatar
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5 votes
3 answers
9k views

How to import a HD wallet from an extended private key

I'd like to export a derived private key from my Electrum HD wallet, and use it as a HD wallet master key in a Mycelium wallet. I used bx to get the key like this (m/2'/0) (where m is the unencrypted ...
sevcsik's user avatar
  • 183
5 votes
1 answer
1k views

How are Electrum addresses connected to my private key?

I've started using Electrum and created my first wallet. I saved the private key seed on a piece of paper. I also created a new address by going to the Receive tab and clicking "New Address"....
Taimoor Ahmad's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
4k views

Where can I view my HD wallet seed in bitcoin core 13.2

Where/how do I view my seed in core 13.2? I understand that as of 13.0, the hd wallets are used by default.
gdoober's user avatar
  • 226
5 votes
1 answer
581 views

Can you detect that the addresses generated by an HD wallet came from a single wallet?

Can someone who is looking at the blockchain detect that 2 or more addresses generated by a single HD wallet are actually generated by that single seed/HD wallet ? Can someone who does know that 2 or ...
user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
315 views

Elliptic Curve Point at Infinity

Let's take into account the Bitcoin curve. My questions are: What exactly is the "point at infinity"? Is there more than one "point at infinity" How can I identify if my EC generated x and y are the "...
Allan Romanato's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
17k views

How to generate public and private key pairs from the 12 seed words in python

I basically followed the instructions here How to generate mycelium addresses from the 12 words in python So my code is similar: from bip32utils import BIP32Key from bip32utils import BIP32_HARDEN ...
Stormy Dan's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
1k views

a few questions about how HD wallet works

I've read through HD wallet from various resources and have got the basic understanding about it, but am still confused by a few details 1) Each non-hardened public keys (thus addresses) can receive ...
Will Gu's user avatar
  • 368
5 votes
1 answer
1k views

Hardened Keys vs Normal Keys - A Simpler Explanation

I'm trying to better understand hardened keys and normal keys and how the former protects the rest of and HD wallet. Following on from the answer provided here: ELI5: What's the difference ...
Sach's user avatar
  • 53
5 votes
1 answer
2k views

In HD Wallet recovery how does the wallets know which addresses to recover

I have been reading the BIP32 proposal explaining how HD works but it didn't mention on any point how one wallet in one phone can recover from a simple mnemonic seed. Does it just try all possible ...
Eddy's user avatar
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