Questions tagged [block]

This tag should be used for questions related to Bitcoin blocks

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4
votes
1answer
74 views

How has the Bitcoin average block size recently risen above 3 MB?

I was aware that the block size could rise above the 1 MB cap due to SegWit. However, my understanding was that the block size would still be limited under SegWit. My understanding of SegWit is that ...
0
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2answers
45 views

Including transactions in a block - rules and time / technical aspect

I’ve a question regarding block and transactions included in the next block that is solved. Let us assume theoretically that there is newly propagated solved block. And now there are: tx0 and tx1 –...
15
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4answers
15k views

Why does each block store a Merkle root?

I understand how a Merkle root is calculated and stored in the block. But how do miners verify a transaction using the Merkle root? Here are 18 conditions that verify a transaction. None of them uses ...
2
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2answers
91 views

What would happen if miners refused halving

In may 2020 the supply of bitcoin per block is supposed to be reduced by half https://www.bitcoinblockhalf.com/ What if after this phase the first miner or more than 51% of them decide to keep the ...
0
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1answer
22 views

How can size of a block be significantly small? [duplicate]

As we all know bitcoin block size should be sth about 1MiB. (Some blocks about 2MB). And this is because miners put all transactions to the block every 10 minutes. So what happens technically that ...
0
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0answers
14 views

Regarding 51% attacks in blockchain [duplicate]

Can anyone tell me, What is 51% attack in blockchain how this attack is prevented
0
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1answer
155 views

Testing altcoin reward halving - Help!

I am currently working on reward halving changes for a test coin and i have added all the necessary changes but my question is how do i safely test this new halving without affecting production. I ...
0
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0answers
24 views

Block validation process [duplicate]

Can some one explain how the block validation is done in blockchain based system with suitable example.
0
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2answers
104 views

Is there any python library could be used to decodescript in output

For example decode the ScriptPubKey like 4104678afdb0fe5548271967f1a67130b7105cd6a828e03909a67962e0ea1f61deb649f6bc3f4cef38c4f35504e51ec112de5c384df7ba0b8d578a4c702b6bf11d5fac to some data like ...
0
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1answer
14 views

Block validation in blockchain

if i am saying that node A is having some block (B) and other nodes X,Y,Z are wants to validate the block B than node A has to send the block B to nodes X,Y,Z. This block B contains the hash of ...
1
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1answer
19 views

Regarding block validation in blockchain

In mining process, miners validate the block based on proof of work or using some other consensus mechanism. Miners also validate the block. So in this validation process, miners validate only hash ...
3
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2answers
735 views

How to run a full node: Am I already doing so?

I've succesfully installed bitcoind and bitcoin-cli. I got some questions about it: I run bitcoind in the background by typing: bitcoind -daemon and the blockchain begins to download: By typing ...
2
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1answer
45 views

What is the actual Bitcoin block size? 2mb or 1mb?

I am not asking about block weight. I hear many people saying that the actual Bitcon block size is 2mb. However, in any block explorer, I can see that blocks are around 1200kb. This is very confusing, ...
0
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1answer
164 views

How do I double SHA-256 the header of block #59,500?

I'm not sure how to combine all of this information. https://blockchain.info/block/00000000096af43105123c499521e1d131d172e7e1bf2ed0843290a921f1f6a7 Version 1 Time Bits 470771548 (is this the right ...
0
votes
1answer
72 views

A part I do not get about SPV

SPV (lightweight) users do not have a chain. (Well, some SPV users have a fraction of the full chain, but some SPV users only have block headers. Am I correct?) If a block is created by a miner and a ...
0
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2answers
97 views

What is the most optimal way to parse a raw bitcoin block with python?

Let's say one is connected to a zmq socket and listening for rawblock. How you'd parse the block header is as follows: block_header = raw[:80] version = block_header[:4] prev_merkle_root = ...
0
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1answer
21 views

what file/method is block reward processed?

I have managed to build an altcoin (from litecoin source) but my coin requires that I make changes to the way rewards are made. I have been looking at the source code to try to find where block reward ...
0
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0answers
21 views

Where can I find a detailed network protocol spec? [duplicate]

I have been trying for a while to understand how the bitcoin network works, which I (kind of) do on a high level. However, all of the sources I read don't go into the details of the protocol that ...
4
votes
1answer
67 views

How long are orphaned or stale blocks kept in bitcoin core nodes memory?

If there was a chain reorg, for example: Blockchain: 0a---1a---2a---3a becomes... 0a---1a---2b---3b How long are blocks 2b and 3b kept in memory on the node? If I query the node for block 2b ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

Can a miner give themselves less than the maximum block subsidy if they wish to do so?

The current maximum block subsidy is 12.5 bitcoin. A mined block recently got rejected from full nodes after a miner tried to post the block subsidy as 13.26 bitcoin. But what about in the other ...
9
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2answers
7k views

How is a proof-of-stake block mined at the block level, and how does it accomplish it's goals?

I've seen many broad overviews of proof-of-stake mining, and descriptions, but I have not seen any good description of what goes into actually mining and verifying a proof-of-stake block, and how it ...
2
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3answers
1k views

how do nodes verify that a block has been solved and can be added to the blockchain

when a miner solves a block it gets sent out to the network, when other nodes receive it, how do they verify that the block received was indeed solved and can be added to the blockchain. So you don't ...
2
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1answer
105 views

Different balances in API block explorers for BTC

BTC.com block explorer shows bigger balance than for example Insight or Blockchair. For example: https://btc.com/1FLDCfr9iG7n6bAdGsqBXmhaLgC4aSze72 https://insight.bitpay.com/address/...
1
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1answer
16 views

Doubt regarding hashing function in Merkle trees

From what I read, say in a block, there are 4 transactions. The hash value of transactions A and B are combined together to get the hash AB. Same goes for transactions C and D to get hash CD. Later AB ...
0
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1answer
13 views

CDiskBlockIndex: NFile and NDataPos not defined

This is the source code snippet that is used for the serialization of block indexes (found in leveldb). Block 478573 index is (as of my node's leveldb) ...
2
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1answer
43 views

Does assumevalid lower the security of Bitcoin?

Bitcoin's assumption was to download the blocks and verify it in order to prevent getting fooled. But by default, the assumevalid option is enabled in the software, which, as I understand it, makes ...
0
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3answers
509 views

Could I theoretically mine a block faster than 10 minutes?

I have been reading a lot about this 10 minute block in the Bitcoin network. I'm slightly confused because I thought mining was a somewhat random process, mostly based on how powerful your mining ...
7
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2answers
2k views

How to prevent a miner from stealing another miner's block?

Many articles only contain a phrasing like A miner A solves the hash problem and gives the result to the network to check. Once a majority of the network confirms, A gets the reward. But how does ...
6
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3answers
2k views

Shortest and Longest block interval time ever recorded in Bitcoin

Bitcoin block interval time is on average 10 minutes, that is the difficulty is adjusted in such a way that every 10 minutes a miner will manage to find the right hash. This is just an average time ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

How to parse values in block index leveldb?

So I'm trying to read the block files with Python. From this link, What are the keys used in the blockchain levelDB (ie what are the key:value pairs)?, it tells you how to access the files with ...
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3answers
102 views

What is a bitcoin incoming transaction with value = 0.00000546?

I wrote a script that downloads and parses blocks. I see a lot of incoming payments with value = 0.00000546. Any explanation? Thanks!
2
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1answer
37 views

What if an intruder modify scriptSig to get the same hashMerkleRoot of a block?

What if an intruder try to modify the coinbase transaction of a block buried in the blockchain, writing as output some other address. The arbitrary content of the scriptSig field could be modified as ...
1
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1answer
42 views

Bitcoin Blocks Date not coherent? [duplicate]

I was taking data from the BTC Blockchain with a custom script. I found something really weird. Block nr. 24668 was created at 2009-10-09 23:02:57 Block nr. 24669 was created at 2009-10-10 00:15:48 ...
2
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0answers
42 views

Is there a way to get stats about fees paid (highest, lowest, average) in a specific block?

I'd prefer to get the stats from my full node via bitcoin-cli, but if that's not possible some API would do the job too...
0
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1answer
42 views

Do Full Nodes validate all transactions and make new blocks after all bitcoin are mined?

Do Full Nodes validate all transactions after all bitcoin are mined? A fork of bitcoin core with all coins pre mined would be behaving in this way too I'd imagine..? Also, would these nodes still ...
1
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1answer
31 views

What happens in a small scale blockchain network?

My main question here is, is this understanding correct or have I misunderstood something? If this question would be better for Reddit then I apologise in advance and I'll move to there. Thanks. ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Tracking inventory messages

I am trying to connect to different nodes and keep track of the inventory messages that they send to me. I tried to do this with bitcoinj and libbitcoin, but I didn't make it. The goal is to connect ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Which is the better estimator for future mining intervals, the 10 minute protocol target or the observed, historical average?

The Bitcoin protocol is designed so that the network difficulty is periodically adjusted so that new blocks are mined on average every 10th minute. However, looking back the last 10 years, it appears ...
2
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2answers
353 views

In what order do new blocks get processed?

Node A receives a newest block with height h1, which it determines to be valid, and therefore stores the block on disk. A little later, it receives another block with the same height h1 but a greater ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Block size limit in Bitcoin v0.01

In main.h (line 17) we have a constant MAX_SIZE static const unsigned int MAX_SIZE = 0x02000000; which in decimal format equals to 33554432 (32MB) This constant is used to verify if the block ...
0
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1answer
29 views

How and why we need to validate a transaction?

I've starting doing some researches about the Bitcoin protocol and the blockchain. I'm trying to understand all the sections in the Bitcoin white-paper. So far, i couldn't understand what is the ...
1
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1answer
36 views

How chaining the blocks protect against altering data?

I am confused with the block chaining, as i know a block header contains a reference to the previous block header hash with the merkle root and other fields. This header hash is related (computed) to ...
0
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1answer
61 views

How can get balance for btc/bch address and block?

How can get balance for btc/bch address and block ? Similar to web3.eth.getBalance for Ethereum
0
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1answer
44 views

Bitcoin fork resolution - Fork losers download previous blocks 'til common block?

When resolving a naturally occurring fork in Bitcoin, do the miners who were working on the orphaned fork download previous blocks from the miner who won the block reward that resolved the fork until ...
0
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2answers
50 views

Bitcoin checks and balances

When a new block is created, does each block need to be validated? How does it differ from validating transactions? Why miners would waste time validating transactions and blocks when they could ...
0
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2answers
67 views

What Opcodes are used to store a file within Bitcoin? [closed]

At a block-to-block level, what is actually encoded at a byte[] level to encode a file stream?
0
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0answers
28 views

Is it possible to get a block by timestamp?

I use Bitcoin Core API and I can retrieve a block by header hash as parameter using the getblock method. I need to get a block by given timestamp (median time). I found some solution. ...
0
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1answer
49 views

Block 566687 nonce with extranonce, how to interpret?

This could apply to any block, but I was checking this one out found by Slushpool. I've looked this up in Mastering Bitcoin and here on StackExchange, but the best I can get so far is: the coinbase ...
0
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3answers
195 views

Where is the data stored in Bitcoin?

Is all the data related with the transaction of bitcoin stored in blockchain or the data stored somewhere in the cloud and they are referenced from blockchain. I have this confusion because if we are ...
0
votes
2answers
68 views

What happens if “transaction size” is larger than “maximum block size”?

Assuming a transaction size is T Bytes, while maximum block size is B Bytes, such that T>B. What happens for this transaction? It will be divided into two smaller parts and will be stored in two ...