Questions tagged [block]

This tag should be used for questions related to Bitcoin blocks

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57 views

what file/method is block reward processed?

I have managed to build an altcoin (from litecoin source) but my coin requires that I make changes to the way rewards are made. I have been looking at the source code to try to find where block reward ...
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2answers
68 views

Including transactions in a block - rules and time / technical aspect

I’ve a question regarding block and transactions included in the next block that is solved. Let us assume theoretically that there is newly propagated solved block. And now there are: tx0 and tx1 –...
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0answers
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Where can I find a detailed network protocol spec? [duplicate]

I have been trying for a while to understand how the bitcoin network works, which I (kind of) do on a high level. However, all of the sources I read don't go into the details of the protocol that ...
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1answer
239 views

How long are orphaned or stale blocks kept in bitcoin core nodes memory?

If there was a chain reorg, for example: Blockchain: 0a---1a---2a---3a becomes... 0a---1a---2b---3b How long are blocks 2b and 3b kept in memory on the node? If I query the node for block 2b ...
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1answer
90 views

How has the Bitcoin average block size recently risen above 3 MB?

I was aware that the block size could rise above the 1 MB cap due to SegWit. However, my understanding was that the block size would still be limited under SegWit. My understanding of SegWit is that ...
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1answer
139 views

Can a miner give themselves less than the maximum block subsidy if they wish to do so?

The current maximum block subsidy is 12.5 bitcoin. A mined block recently got rejected from full nodes after a miner tried to post the block subsidy as 13.26 bitcoin. But what about in the other ...
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1answer
30 views

Doubt regarding hashing function in Merkle trees

From what I read, say in a block, there are 4 transactions. The hash value of transactions A and B are combined together to get the hash AB. Same goes for transactions C and D to get hash CD. Later AB ...
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1answer
17 views

CDiskBlockIndex: NFile and NDataPos not defined

This is the source code snippet that is used for the serialization of block indexes (found in leveldb). Block 478573 index is (as of my node's leveldb) ...
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1answer
204 views

How to parse values in block index leveldb?

So I'm trying to read the block files with Python. From this link, What are the keys used in the blockchain levelDB (ie what are the key:value pairs)?, it tells you how to access the files with ...
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3answers
227 views

What is a bitcoin incoming transaction with value = 0.00000546?

I wrote a script that downloads and parses blocks. I see a lot of incoming payments with value = 0.00000546. Any explanation? Thanks!
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0answers
51 views

Bitcoin Blocks Date not coherent? [duplicate]

I was taking data from the BTC Blockchain with a custom script. I found something really weird. Block nr. 24668 was created at 2009-10-09 23:02:57 Block nr. 24669 was created at 2009-10-10 00:15:48 ...
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0answers
47 views

Is there a way to get stats about fees paid (highest, lowest, average) in a specific block?

I'd prefer to get the stats from my full node via bitcoin-cli, but if that's not possible some API would do the job too...
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1answer
85 views

Do Full Nodes validate all transactions and make new blocks after all bitcoin are mined?

Do Full Nodes validate all transactions after all bitcoin are mined? A fork of bitcoin core with all coins pre mined would be behaving in this way too I'd imagine..? Also, would these nodes still ...
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1answer
48 views

What happens in a small scale blockchain network?

My main question here is, is this understanding correct or have I misunderstood something? If this question would be better for Reddit then I apologise in advance and I'll move to there. Thanks. ...
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1answer
54 views

What if an intruder modify scriptSig to get the same hashMerkleRoot of a block?

What if an intruder try to modify the coinbase transaction of a block buried in the blockchain, writing as output some other address. The arbitrary content of the scriptSig field could be modified as ...
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1answer
41 views

Tracking inventory messages

I am trying to connect to different nodes and keep track of the inventory messages that they send to me. I tried to do this with bitcoinj and libbitcoin, but I didn't make it. The goal is to connect ...
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1answer
54 views

Which is the better estimator for future mining intervals, the 10 minute protocol target or the observed, historical average?

The Bitcoin protocol is designed so that the network difficulty is periodically adjusted so that new blocks are mined on average every 10th minute. However, looking back the last 10 years, it appears ...
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1answer
165 views

Block size limit in Bitcoin v0.01

In main.h (line 17) we have a constant MAX_SIZE static const unsigned int MAX_SIZE = 0x02000000; which in decimal format equals to 33554432 (32MB) This constant is used to verify if the block ...
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1answer
41 views

How and why we need to validate a transaction?

I've starting doing some researches about the Bitcoin protocol and the blockchain. I'm trying to understand all the sections in the Bitcoin white-paper. So far, i couldn't understand what is the ...
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1answer
46 views

How chaining the blocks protect against altering data?

I am confused with the block chaining, as i know a block header contains a reference to the previous block header hash with the merkle root and other fields. This header hash is related (computed) to ...
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1answer
117 views

How can get balance for btc/bch address and block?

How can get balance for btc/bch address and block ? Similar to web3.eth.getBalance for Ethereum
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1answer
73 views

Bitcoin fork resolution - Fork losers download previous blocks 'til common block?

When resolving a naturally occurring fork in Bitcoin, do the miners who were working on the orphaned fork download previous blocks from the miner who won the block reward that resolved the fork until ...
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2answers
73 views

Bitcoin checks and balances

When a new block is created, does each block need to be validated? How does it differ from validating transactions? Why miners would waste time validating transactions and blocks when they could ...
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1answer
457 views

Block 566687 nonce with extranonce, how to interpret?

This could apply to any block, but I was checking this one out found by Slushpool. I've looked this up in Mastering Bitcoin and here on StackExchange, but the best I can get so far is: the coinbase ...
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4answers
1k views

Where is the data stored in Bitcoin?

Is all the data related with the transaction of bitcoin stored in blockchain or the data stored somewhere in the cloud and they are referenced from blockchain. I have this confusion because if we are ...
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2answers
226 views

What happens if “transaction size” is larger than “maximum block size”?

Assuming a transaction size is T Bytes, while maximum block size is B Bytes, such that T>B. What happens for this transaction? It will be divided into two smaller parts and will be stored in two ...
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1answer
116 views

Spending UTXO from same block

Block 546 is the first time a (actually two) transaction spends the UTXO of a transaction from the same block. Is the order important? (The transaction that generates the UTXO has to appear before in ...
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1answer
84 views

How can block time and block size be fixed when transaction volume is constantly increasing?

As I understand it the network rejects blocks over 1MB, and block hash difficulty is set after each block is created as to keep the block time close to 10min. But if people are constantly joining ...
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1answer
111 views

what happens if a miner include a transaction already exists in another block?

Suppose that I have a Transaction A. (txA) I send my txA to bitcoin network and full node validate it and put in Mempool and starts to broadcasting it. A Miner A connect to a fullnode to create a ...
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1answer
100 views

Private Blockchains: Validation

I'm a software developer, and I have some questions about private blockchains, I'd like to have technical answers since I'm trying to understand blockchain at a code level. I'm going to write a ...
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1answer
246 views

How does a node decide whether a block is valid?

I'm a software developer, and I've been trying to figure out how a node decides whether a block is valid, I do understand the hashes in bitcoin, the merkle root, and all those aspects but my question ...
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1answer
24 views

How to prevent nodes from creating only small blocks to earn fee?

I read What are the minimum sizes for transactions and blocks in Bitcoin? that there is no min limit - just a max limit of 128MB - for a block. For example if a miner always takes a single ...
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2answers
130 views

What Opcodes are used to store a file within Bitcoin? [closed]

At a block-to-block level, what is actually encoded at a byte[] level to encode a file stream?
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2answers
793 views

What is the most optimal way to parse a raw bitcoin block with python?

Let's say one is connected to a zmq socket and listening for rawblock. How you'd parse the block header is as follows: block_header = raw[:80] version = block_header[:4] prev_merkle_root = ...
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1answer
108 views

Getting individual block by height from Bitcoin P2P network

Is it possible to request an individual block from the bitcoin network, using the block height as parameter? Or would one have to start a node and wait until all blocks up to the desired height have ...
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2answers
459 views

How does the structure of a segwit block differ from a non-segwit block?

Is there any difference in the structure of a segwit block in comparison to a traditional non-segwit block? A diagram would be helpful if possible.
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2answers
323 views

Each full node has different mempool?

I don't understand if each full node has different mempool inside. With RPC command getblocktemplate I can Get the information about candidate block. I can Find all transaction verified but ...
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1answer
65 views

Explanation of a block's fields one by one?

We can get bitcoin block data as JSON by command bitcoin-cli getblock <hash> 2, following is one for height 100000: { "hash": "...
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1answer
1k views

Why is increasing block size in the Bitcoin network considered to decrease security?

I have been doing some research on the Bitcoin Cash hard fork and the main contention of increasing the block size appears to be the possibility of less security on the network. How does an increased ...
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2answers
183 views

Why are block header bits necessary? (Valid difficulty is already implied by chain history)

Difficulty or target is implied by chain history, so why does it need to be explicit in the header? I suppose it exposes miner-intended-difficulty, but I don't see why that would be relevant without ...
2
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1answer
109 views

Why is a “first seen” rule is used to pick a side in a honest split, instead of deterministic criteria? [duplicate]

I was just thinking, why nodes pick the first block they see when there is an honest split, instead of picking, for example, the one with the "best hash" (number further away from the difficulty cut)? ...
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3answers
2k views

Block Validation: who does it? How much it costs? And is it present in all protocols?

Different threads were posted in order to clear up this question, but there are some points that I would need to confirm: When you become a full-node (NOT miner, you just downloaded the full ...
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2answers
213 views

mining: losers get nothing?

if the winning miner takes the 12BTC+fees, unless you own the biggest mining operation out there, or are not a member of the biggest pool, why bother mining, if there is no prize for second place? ...
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1answer
320 views

identical coinbase transactions

this sounds like an old topic but i have not found a satisfying answer yet; in history there lived two blocks with identical coinbase transactions: https://www.blockchain.com/btc/block-index/106662 ...
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1answer
40 views

What would happen if I publish a modified version of an earlier block? Would it be rejected immediately by peer nodes?

I am reading the book "Mastering Bitcoin" and have finished reading Chapter 2 and 10, but I still don't find the answer. Suppose the current main chain has 5 blocks: B0 <- B1 <- B2 <- B3 &...
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0answers
294 views

Estimated number of hashes

This is not a duplicate of previous, similar questions I've read on StackExchange, since none of those questions, nor the answers, go into the difficulty theory, as espoused on the Bitcoin Wiki. ...
2
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1answer
452 views

Fixing “Block not found on disk” rpc error

I have a full node with txindex enabled that I've been trying to use for an electrum server. However, whether I use ElectrumX or Electrs, I hit the same error on initial indexing of "Block not found ...
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0answers
21 views

What needs to be done inorder to change difficulty?

I'm trying for a while to reduce difficulty of main network to do some experiments on transactions and maybe simulate some possible attacks.I came up to change nBits field in chainparams.cpp but it ...
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1answer
54 views

Why the block's order in blockxxxxx.dat is different from blockchain.info

I parsed the block00000.dat using python code: class BlockFile: def __init__(self, block_filename): self.block_filename = block_filename self.blockchain = open(block_filename, 'rb', ...
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1answer
375 views

How come Merkle tree is more efficient when tree branches are not stored in blockchain?

Suppose we have 8 transactions in a block X as follows and we know every node's hash value of the whole Merkle tree (that is, including intermediary nodes such as 45). Then if someone claims ...

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