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Questions about the consensus system of Bitcoin and the protocol rules that are consensus critical.

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Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS) vs. Proof of stake?

What is the main difference between Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS) vs. Proof of Stake? Is there any significant advantage for security? (since PoS in general suffers security problems.) And which ...
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15 views

Do private blockchains need consensus protocols?

My understanding is that in a private blockchain, the participating nodes verify and agree that the block is valid and only then add it to the blockchain.In this scenario, are consensus protocols (...
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2answers
696 views

How is Bitcoin governed by mathematics?

I keep hearing talks from Bitcoin evangelists that claim Bitcoin isn't governed by any central authority, rather it's governed by mathematics. What exactly do they mean when they say "governed by ...
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1answer
29 views

What is the “main” difference between consensus mechanism of Bitcoin and Ethereum?

Bitcoin and Ethereum both use proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanism. One of differences between Bitcoin Pow and Ethereum PoW is difficulty level, meaning that while in bitcoin block generation rate ...
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1answer
12 views

Is it logical to use “Proof-of-Authority” for a “public” blockchain?

According parity.io website: Proof-of-Authority is a replacement for Proof-of-Work, which can be used for private chain setups. And also: The chain has to be signed off by the majority of ...
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3answers
42 views

PoW 51% attack vs. BFT 1/3 attack?

So from what I understand, Bitcoin's PoW is prone to 51% attack, but as a distributed system it is also prone to BFT's 1/3 attack right? I think it's mathematically proven that in a distributed system,...
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1answer
24 views

Distributed Consensus

"Distributed" means operating on more than one devices which dont share physical memory and perform their task (which might be storage or computation) to perform one single task (which in our case ...
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3answers
94 views

Has PoS really been proven secure under comparable assumptions as Bitcoin?

I am just reading this paper which claims to be a formal proof that Cardano's latest Ouroboros PoS protocol ("Genesis") gives similar security guarantees than Bitcoin's PoW protocol. Unfortunately, it ...
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1answer
62 views

Why was BIP34 (Block v2, Height in Coinbase) not implemented via the coinbase tx's locktime or nSequence?

At some point in 2011/12 miners started using custom mining algorithms ignoring the best practise to mine to a different new public key (hash) for each subsequent block. This lead to a lack of ...
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14 views

Hyperledger consensus protocol

I'm soo deep inside the consensus protocols like PoW, PoS, PoA or other variants used on permissioned/private blockchains such as JPMorgan's Quorum (Based on Raft), Istambul etc.. But I've not ...
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3answers
40 views

Why is a softfork unable to divide the network?

I was wondering why a soft fork cannot in principle divide the Bitcoin network as a hard fork can. I understand that a soft fork, by definition, involves only tightening the consensus rules, but the ...
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1answer
67 views

Would nine 1MB transactions potentially create havoc on the BitcoinCash network

It appears that the BitcoinCash chain is still on its original BCH main chain, and non-upgraded mines/exchanges/wallets can still transact there. What then would happen if nine (or more) 1MB ...
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1answer
29 views

How can one full node know whether other full nodes added certain block to their blockchain?

How can one full node know whether other nodes agreed a block suggestion of a miner (so it will know whether to add the block to its blockchain too)? thank you
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1answer
46 views

How to: Check whether or not transaction inputs have been previously spent

Maybe I have overlooked it, but I think the "Bitcoin Developer Reference" does not specify how a miner has to check whether or not transaction inputs have been previously spent. How is it done? And ...
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0answers
16 views

How Ripple ledger behaves in a cross border transaction

While I was reading on Ripple, the following part of in cross border payment handling confuses me. If it's between two banks, it says that once the participating parties agree on exchange rates, the ...
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1answer
74 views

Do all consensus algorithms aim to solve the Byzantine generals problem?

Can I clarify my understanding: Byzantine Fault Tolerance is a characteristic of a system to tolerate a class of failures belonging to the byzantine generals problem. Byzantine Fault tolerance is ...
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0answers
34 views

DPOS vs tendermint in Ethereum

what is the difference between DPOS and tendermint? and which one can be used for partially decentralized blockchain ? note i will use ethereum
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2answers
47 views

Has a consensus algorithm where temporary authorities are fairly “elected” via PoW been discussed?

In the usual proof-of-work consensus system, miners constantly compute hashes (“wasting” resources). What if hashing were restricted to a certain time window, e.g., 1 hour per day? This could act as ...
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1answer
39 views

Altering Consensus Rules

How nodes agree to consensus rules? Is it possible for someone to change the consensus rules for his own software and then remain in the previous network? If not, then why?
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1answer
54 views

What happens to the blockchain after the miner wins the puzzle?

I have some problems understanding the flow of consensus mechanism, so far I know, In PoW when validating a transaction the miners will compete with each other to solve a puzzle, the miner who find ...
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2answers
49 views

What happens when a node cannot find the base Block of a newly received Block

This particular question has been bugging my mind for sometime now. Suppose there an adversary miner who mines a Block with one of his transactions. The miner would only send the updated Block to a ...
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2answers
50 views

Any attack vector for Proof of Witness?

When Alice wants to send Bob some coins all she has to do is sign a transfer of ownership with her private keys and publicize that announcement until Bob is happy with the number of witnesses. For ...
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2answers
77 views

Can an attacker use a modified Bitcoin node to pass fake transactions into the mempool?

Is it possible for a malicious attacker to download a bitcoin software code, modify that code and use that software for his own benefit? I know that any changes implemented in the bitcoin software ...
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1answer
51 views

When does a node mark a transaction as confirmed or unconfirmed?

As new transactions are broadcasted, the nodes keep them in a pool of unconfirmed transactions. One node will add it to a block as soon as it finds a proof of work. At the same time many other nodes ...
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100 views

Proof of Elapsed Time Susceptible to Random number generator attack?

Since Proof of Elapsed Time (POET) uses a Random Wait time to elect a leader, would it be susceptible to Random number generator attack? Nathan Aw
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1answer
149 views

What consensus algorithm is MimbleWimble/Grin using? Does it use Zero Knowledge Proofs as well?

Understand that MimbleWimble/Grin is privacy centric. Does it use Zero Knowledge Proofs to achieve the privacy goals? In addition, what consensus algorithm is MimbleWimble/Grin using?
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2answers
69 views

How do nodes reach consensus on when the target is recalculated?

Due to network latencies, some nodes may think they are at a different block height than the rest of the network. How then does a node decide if the target has been recalculated since that changes ...
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1answer
61 views

Difference between Byzantine Fault Tolerant Protocols and Byzantine Agreement protocol (i.e., BA*)?

What is the difference between Byzantine Fault Tolerant Protocols and Byzantine Agreement protocol (i.e., BA*)? Is it just a naming convention or both concept differs fundamentally? Nathan Aw
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1answer
32 views

P2WSH-MultiSig fails with documented OP_0 workaround

As per the note at Developer Guide - MultiSig and BIP147 when using OP_CHECKMULTISIG an OP_0 needs to be prefaced to the scriptSig to accommodate a bug in the original Bitcoin implementation. If the ...
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1answer
36 views

How do offchain transactions get validated/confirmed whilst using Lightning network?

How do offchain transactions get validated whilst using Lightning network?
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1answer
108 views

Proof of Work and Proof of Stake - Competitive advantage

It is said that Proof of Stake will be the mainstream consensus mechanism in the long run. Regarding the nature perspective I totally agree. But it has been rumoured that Proof of stake is more ...
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1answer
111 views

In what sense does the security model of proof-of-stake require users to “log on to the internet every few months”

This is primarily a question about something I heard Vitalik Buterin say in an interview the other day. (Unchained podcast's January 9, 2018 episode, at 34 minutes, 15 seconds) I quote: As far as ...
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0answers
880 views

What is Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS)?

I know that it is a consensus algorithm that is different from Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS) which is used in a few blockchains including but not limited to STEEM, BitShares and ARK, ...
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1answer
45 views

Is there an API that provides information on the consensus algorithm of altcoins?

Is there an API that offers information on the consensus algorithm of altcoins? Something like examplewebsite.org/api?name=steem { ... "consensus":"DPoS", ... }
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1answer
111 views

Unbreakablecoin - Block Height Stopped Moving

I am running a full Unbreakablecoin (a Bitcoin clone) node. Blocks were being generated every few minutes or so, until about a week ago. Now, the block height has been stuck at 82666 for multiple ...
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0answers
25 views

How is the order of transactions determined in a consensus PoS?

How is the order of transactions determined? How does each private ledger of the 'forgers' validate the transaction of others, when one transaction only comes through one of the validators first? ...
2
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1answer
349 views

How will Ripple handle the 50,000+ advertised TPS?

I've tried wrapping my head around the Ripple "consensus process". From my understanding, Ripple creates a new ledger version every 4 seconds, computed by a set of "validating nodes". But herein lies ...
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153 views

Modifying Consensus rules: How to accept block rewards within 3% of connected peers stated block rewards?

For a project I'm working on, I'm trying to modify the consensus rules to allow block rewards (nSubsidy) that are within 3% of other current block rewards by others on the network. For reference I'm ...
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0answers
53 views

What is the community consensus regarding `Bitcoin Cash` and `BCash` - Bitcoin is only one, current naming strategy is not beneficial?

I'd like to know what is the community consensus and what is the way of establishing consensus moving forward? The good metric could potentially be: sign a message using your Bitcoin private key In ...
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1answer
147 views

Why is the longest block the one that gets accepted by all the nodes?

I'm confused about one of the core principles of Bitcoin. When various nodes are confirming transactions, why does the longest block win out? That is, why doesn't the system allow whoever confirms a ...
3
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2answers
289 views

How does a miner get selected in Proof Of Stake?

I am trying to understand POS. I get that POS uses currency held analogous to the hash power held in POW system. More the stake we have, more are our chances of mining the block. At various sources I ...
2
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1answer
105 views

Is segwit2x really called off?

Is the segwit2x called off for sure for now? I see there is still 53.9% intention as of 15th Nov for Segwit2x (Source) I know this is not sure that it is called off forever, but I just want to know ...
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2answers
419 views

Why isn't 'classic' Multi-Paxos Byzantine Consensus used for public Blockchains?

Any solution to the Byzantine General's Problem can be used as a consensus method to base a distributed ledger on. Why then, did Satoshi Nakamoto choose for the super-expensive (in electricity and ...
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1answer
68 views

How do miners accept a hard fork

If a hard fork occurs and is broadcast to the bitcoin network, is there any manual intervention for miners to accept the fork?
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1answer
87 views

Where is SIGHASH_TYPE serialized in SegWit?

When preparing or verifying a signature, a transaction pre-image is created in memory. This pre-image exists purely for the purpose of creating a signature and is not published to the blockchain. At ...
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1answer
183 views

In an event when nobody mines the next block in the blockchain, how are the transactions supposed to get published into the blockchain?

I understand that miners are never gonna stop mining given the transaction fee reward for each block. But just in case of an event when nobody is able/willing to mine the next block in the blockchain, ...
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1answer
189 views

How a stakeholder is chosen randomly in proof-of-stake?

In PoS a group of stakeholders is selected randomly. Now, the question is if stakeholder_1 owns more coins than stakeholder_2, then he has more chance to be selected as a validator in comparison to ...
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1answer
113 views

Who managed bitcoin and ethereum decision making? Who approves Bitcoin upgrades and forks?

To my knowledge in Bitcoin and Ethereum decision makings are decided by the miners and developers. I like to know who makes the final say on the approval of a change to Bitcoin/Ethereum code or ...
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1answer
105 views

do isolated blocks create forks in block chain? (with forks I mean branches that are no longer valid) If yes then how does the node redeem itself? [duplicate]

I'm a newbie to cryto and wanted understand this. what happens to the chain when the isolated block is formed (in case of a double spend) ? Since chains only add blocks that come from the longest ...
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2answers
98 views

Why are negative fees not allowed?

Why does Bitcoin consensus require blocks to contain only non negative fee transactions? Also why does the coinbase have to be the first transaction in a block with this rule lifted? Instead of ...