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Questions tagged [consensus]

Questions about the consensus system of Bitcoin and the protocol rules that are consensus critical.

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Is PoW an indispensable component in blockchain?

There is an argument that if the Proof-of-Work (PoW) mechanism is removed from the Bitcoin network or if the puzzle does not have a sufficient level of difficulty proportional to the computing power ...
Questioner's user avatar
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1 answer
61 views

Consensus Question

With all the recent developments of the spammers and those who want to filter them. I have a few things I don't get. They mention the bug that wasn't fixed (CVE-2023-50428). As I understand, this &...
user151596's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
722 views

What are the risks of running a pre-SegWit node (0.12.1)?

Many in the anti-spam faction have contemplated running a pre-SegWit node. But they're told that it is an insecure downgrade and a detrimental idea. So, Is it safe to assume that Bitcoin is not soft-...
WhoIsNinja's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
103 views

What are ALL the consensus rules?

I asked this question before, and it was quickly locked and pointed to a thread about mempool policy... yet my question remains unanswered. Let it be known, I don't want to know what policy is [or is ...
DoctorBuzz1's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
148 views

Are there plans to make a script invalid if there is more than one element left in the stack?

In BIP62, it was proposed to make a script invalid if there was more than one element left in the stack after execution. This proposal was eventually withdrawn. From what I read, some people have ...
mathboi's user avatar
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1 answer
93 views

Can the hash of UTXO set be part of the bitcoin block header and consensus rules and in which cases?

This question doesn't have much logic in "reality", it's more theoretical about whether something can or cannot be part of consensus rules and in which cases. I know that the consensus rule ...
LeaBit's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
246 views

Are consensus rules allowed to be associated with off-chain information and how is the locktime consensus rule?

In answer to one of my previous questions, Pieter Wuille wrote that the +2h rule for block acceptance cannot be a consensus rule because it is based on comparing block timestamp with information that ...
LeaBit's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
158 views

Why isn't the upper bound (+2h) on the block timestamp set as a consensus rule?

Why isn't the +2h acceptance rule part of the consensus? Of course, then it couldn't be based on network-adjusted time + 2h because, in edge cases, one part of the network might accept something while ...
LeaBit's user avatar
  • 980
0 votes
1 answer
99 views

Is the maximum target a consensus rule?

What is "difficulty" and how it relates to "target"? states that the largest possible target value (max target value) is: ...
LeaBit's user avatar
  • 980
0 votes
0 answers
52 views

Lib bitcoinconsensus verification returns SCRIPT_ERR_INVALID_STACK_OPERATION on a P2SH multisig output

I tried to verify an old transaction 6a26d2ecb67f27d1fa5524763b49029d7106e91e3cc05743073461a719776192 P2SH multisig input 0 using lib bitcoinconsensus and I got SCRIPT_ERR_INVALID_STACK_OPERATION. ...
Alec Matusis's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
258 views

What is the logic (if there is) behind linking the nSequence and nLockTime?

The nSequence transaction field was originally intended for a replacement logic, but since it was never well thought out, it was never implemented. However, it has been implemented since the beginning ...
LeaBit's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
141 views

What does nVersion represent in Bitcoin transaction?

Have a few questions about the nVersion field in the transaction serialization format and they are related to the purpose of this field. What does this field tell us? In the sense that if it is ...
LeaBit's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
45 views

Are the blocks produced by different nodes in the network comparable in terms of the order of transactions contained in them?

Having a transaction from person A to B and another transaction from person C to D that both took place in more or less the same time I assume that there might be a situation in which different nodes ...
bridgemnc's user avatar
  • 133
0 votes
2 answers
147 views

Miners setting timestamps up to 2h into the Future

When a miner adds the Timestamp to a block template, it must satisfy two conditions: Timestamp must be greater than the Median Timestamp of the previous 11 blocks Timestamp must be less than its ...
sha2fiddy's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
596 views

Undefined opcodes in bitcoin core defined as "Synonyms for OP_RETURN" in rust-bitcoin

In rust-bitcoin, opcodes past the 0xba opcode are named as such: OP_RETURN_187, OP_RETURN_188, ..., OP_RETURN_254. Their description is all the same: Synonym for OP_RETURN. The definition for ...
thunderbiscuit's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
595 views

Is there a well defined last block?

It's fairly well known when the last bitcoin will be mined, but is there a well defined last block? By that I mean, is there a block height H after which Bitcoin Core nodes will refuse to accept any ...
Tyler Levine's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
81 views

Is there a way to participate in bitcoin consensus (tx, block, mining, etc.) verification without downloading the ledger?

It seems like theoretically new blocks could be determined from the list of addresses and the amounts possessed by each address, where maintaining the blockchain would be optional and mostly for ...
Bryan Grace's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
42 views

is consensus needed when double spend attacks cannot happen(assume ideal case)

Suppose double spend attacks cannot happen(assume senders, miners etc are all ideal actors) in a network like BTC for cryptocurrency transactions. I am assuming still fork can happen if two miners ...
user319280's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
747 views

Why does everyone say that soft forks restrict the existing ruleset?

I understand that a key element of a soft fork is that legacy nodes will accept transactions from updated nodes. This is essentially the whole point of a soft fork as opposed to a hard fork. But ...
Marco's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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why not change bitcoin consensus code to reject transactions sent to previously used addresses?

Bitcoin has a growing issue of UTXO dust. Usually this dust occurs from companies trying to track bitcoin use, by sending dust or small transactions to previously used addresses. There is almost no ...
Rebroad's user avatar
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0 answers
76 views

Looking for Source of an Old Idea About Subdividing Satoshis

I remember seeing an old idea but unfortunately I didn't bookmark it and now I'm struggling to find the source again. Maybe someone will remember it and be able to point me to the source? It was ...
bca-0353f40e's user avatar
  • 1,045
2 votes
1 answer
780 views

What are Bitcoin's transaction and script limits?

What are the limits of different transactions and scripts (by consensus and standardness)? Some stack exchange questions discuss some of them (but not all) and all these are scattered around. What is ...
karask's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
71 views

Is the nVersion=3 policy proposal introducing additional policy rules and going against the policy principle to only relax policy rules?

In the PR review club on "nVersion=3 and Package RBF" (February 22nd 2023) glozow stated: But in policy we want to strictly loosen rules. Otherwise we could accidentally censor transaction ...
Michael Folkson's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
91 views

Do nodes accept non-standard output scripts in a mined block?

As I understand, transactions with non-standard output scripts won't be propagated through the network. I'm wondering if I were to mine a block with weird transactions whether it would be accepted by ...
Haim Bender's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
272 views

Does the coinbase transaction have inputs?

I was wondering if I can add dummy data into a coinbase transaction’s inputs. Is it possible to do this? Can you insert invalid input scripts into a coinbase transaction? Can you add multiple inputs ...
Haim Bender's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
209 views

Does version of Bitcoin Core determine my consensus?

As far as (voting) on the network? I run a full node, but do not mine. I hear people say we have a choice when changes are made. Is it the version of Core that determines that?
Edward Halverson's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
913 views

Why CHECKMULTISIG bug can't be solved?

I was reading Mastering Bitcoin and I read about a bug in CHECKMULTISIG. If the starting ideas of this command should work like this <Signature B><Signature C> M <Public key A><...
Paro's user avatar
  • 305
1 vote
1 answer
67 views

Does Bitcoin need future consensus change upgrades or could a billion people use Bitcoin today?

Do Bitcoin Core and other base-layer implementations necessarily need further upgrades in order to become sufficiently fast and efficient to process the volume of transactions that you and others ...
Michael Folkson's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
528 views

Why exactly would adding further divisibility to bitcoin require a hard fork?

There are quite a few threads already on this topic, but they all focus on the necessity or possibility for such a change. I understand that, even though it is difficult and would obviously require ...
sutterseba's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
85 views

What is the use of longest chain consensus rule?

I want to know Couldnt a chain be hardcoded in the bitcoin rules itself? Only so and so chain can be used. During the early days of bitcoin, I know a small group of enthusiasts were miners. And they ...
Guinea guinea's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
55 views

Can you attack the network in a UASF-way?

Let's say that an attacker wants to deploy a softfork, that isn't desired by the majority of the Bitcoin users. Can he enforce that softfork in a UASF-way, essentially flooding the network with nodes ...
Angelo's user avatar
  • 423
2 votes
1 answer
124 views

persistence of the RBF bit in post-fullrbf chain

In case consensus decided to ignore pro-zeroconf nodes (in case that is or can be a thing), then what's the point of having the RBF bit in a transaction, if everything in the system is enforcing RBF (...
Mercedes's user avatar
  • 824
3 votes
2 answers
357 views

Do non-Segwit nodes reject Segwit transactions with invalid signature?

As far as I can tell, non-Segwit nodes receive anyone-can-spend transactions, and thus come with no signature to validate. If a miner included a Segwit transaction to a block with invalid signature, ...
Angelo's user avatar
  • 423
0 votes
0 answers
12 views

consensus on the moving average [duplicate]

I research on consensus and need a forced delay between submittability of new blocks. In bitcoin you use stochastics + processor clock speed. This allows you to choose an expected forced delay, which ...
kaisong15 at proton me's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
394 views

Is every BIP actually a small fork?

What precisely do we consider as fork? It seems that every BIP can be seen as a fork, at least a soft fork since a lot of BIPs indeed are backward compatible. How big or impactful something has to be ...
Boki XD's user avatar
  • 57
2 votes
3 answers
77 views

Relation between PoW and integrity?

I'm pretty new to the Blockchain technology. In a video that I watched, the lecturer talked about Consensus Algorithms and said that they're used for maintaining the integrity of the blockchain.  Then ...
BooRuleDie's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
174 views

what guarantee that miners will only include valid transactions in a block?

So, miners, if I got it right, before inserting a transaction into the Mempool, will request an arbitrary number of confirmations of full nodes that will search the entire blockchain to see if a ...
Vitor Figueredo Marques's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
48 views

The competitive practicality of Bitcoin

Bitcoin is to be trustless by the thousands of nodes, but is this no more trustless than the Federal Reserve system? An account size in 8b on each device is a feasible alternative with absolute ...
Nick Carducci for Carface Bank's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
217 views

When was the 10,000 B limit for scripts introduced?

The file src/script/script.h defines a MAX_SCRIPT_SIZE of 10,000 B. Among other instances, the MAX_SCRIPT_SIZE is used in the IsUnspendable() check, which allows us to avoid adding outputs with ...
Murch's user avatar
  • 76k
0 votes
1 answer
86 views

Would a consensus algorithm like the one I describe work?

Given n nodes(miners/validators), Every unspent transaction output is broadcasted to all n nodes. Each node will select a batch of transactions and add it to their block. The specific mechanism of ...
rasputin's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
189 views

Is there code in libsecp256k1 that theoretically should be moved to the main Core codebase?

In this question on libsecp256k1 Pieter Wuille stated: libsecp256k1 provides implementations for all kinds of operations that involve private keys, public keys, or both. That includes key generation (...
Michael Folkson's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
178 views

Is the removal of Bitcoin checkpoints considered a hard-fork?

The value of DEFAULT_CHECKPOINTS_ENABLED is true and changing it will allow nodes using the default settings to accept blocks that would be currently rejected during a potential reorg. Is this change ...
Fernando N.'s user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
48 views

When was proof of stake theorized?

Hi l've seen a while ago that Proof of stake concensus mechanism was theorized a while ago (before proof of work) in distributed systems. But I can't find any source of that, while searching 'proof of ...
SadPepo's user avatar
  • 81
8 votes
2 answers
587 views

Was the addition of OP_NOP codes in Bitcoin 0.3.6 a hard or soft fork?

I'm doing some deeper research into historical consensus changes and it seems like most folks consider the addition of the OP_NOP codes to be a hard fork. Here's the diff for their addition: https://...
Jameson Lopp's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
74 views

Why is the intersection of two quorums must be greater than N/3 when proving streamlet?

Why is the intersection of two quorums must be greater than N/3 when proving Streamlet, a blockchain consensus protocol [BY Chan, Elaine Shi, 2020]? In Streamlet, honest node vote for proposed block ...
Paul Yu's user avatar
  • 35
-1 votes
1 answer
96 views

In future will multiple widely used implementations around libbitcoinkernel be an overall net positive or net negative for the ecosystem?

Assuming the libbitcoinkernel subproject of Bitcoin Core is completed and successfully/safely extracts the consensus engine out of Bitcoin Core will having multiple widely used alternative ...
Michael Folkson's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
181 views

Is there a consensus as to what is meant by 'Nakamoto Consensus'?

I sometimes hear that bitcoin's key innovation was the Nakamoto Consensus, which solves the double-spend problem without the need for trusted third-party intermediaries. I take Nakamoto Consensus to ...
StatsScared's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
56 views

What stage of the bitcoin protocol deals (or 'solves') the double-spend problem?

I understand that a key innovation in bitcoin is that it solves a key problem faced by previous attempts at a digital currency: the double-spend problem. In addition, I also understand that the ...
StatsScared's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
738 views

Does every single node in the blockchain validate the transactions in the mempool?

I have read several responses to various questions SE. Some responses partially respond to the question so I was hoping to get your help to bridge my gaps in understanding. Does every single node on ...
HeyDoeFarm's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
156 views

Is the minimum fee consensus, just policy, or both?

Intuitively, I think minRelayFee is policy while minBlockTxFee is validation, but DEFAULT_MIN_RELAY_TX_FEE is in validation.h while DEFAULT_BLOCK_MIN_TX_FEE is in policy.h.
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