Questions tagged [lightning-network]

Proposed payment system leveraging payment channels which allow re-negotiation of balances that finally get executed on the Bitcoin blockchain.

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60
votes
3answers
19k views

How does the Lightning network work in simple terms?

Could you please describe how the Lightning network is supposed to work? How does it scale better than pure blockchain transactions? What are the advantages and disadvantages of Lightning Network ...
51
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1answer
14k views

What are Channel Factories and how do they work?

One of the open research questions for Lightning Network is that it will take a massive amount of on-chain transactions to create enough payment channels for all the Lightning Network users. Lately, I'...
9
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1answer
2k views

How is a node in the middle prohibited from keeping the money in a routed Payment in Lightning network?

It is my understanding that Lightning is to scale with users having only few payment channels by leveraging the six degrees of separation theory to facilitate payment routing. I understand how onion ...
8
votes
1answer
572 views

What is the Lightning Network proposal? What problem is it trying to solve?

We already have a few questions about technical details of Lightning network, however, … What is the Lightning network proposal in the first place? What problem is it aiming to solve?
1
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1answer
158 views

1ML shows larger number of nodes comparing to other lightning network explorers

I found that 1ML displays almost double the number of nodes comparing to other lightning network explorers. I think 1ML does not provide the datasource but are you able to guess about the reason of ...
28
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3answers
6k views

How are paths found in Lightning Network?

I understand now how multihop payments can work in LN, but how do we discover payment paths in Lightning Network in the first place? Obviously you'd need to take into account the available capacity ...
16
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2answers
1k views

What are the trade-offs between transacting on Lightning Network and Bitcoin mainchain?

Lightning network's first prototype code is online, so it's about time we learn more about what it is. (At least I wish some people would…) What are the expected trade-offs of Lightning Network to ...
9
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2answers
3k views

Do parties in a Lightning Network channel need to be online?

I'm thinking of a scenario where users on mobile devices using a LN client will rarely be online. Let's say Alice opens a channel with Bob and they make 10 LN transactions. After Alice has received ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

What is a hash pre-image as it is used for the breach remedy?

Until this afternoon I thought the anti-cheat transactions or breach remedies built on the exit-transaction of the counterparty. Apparently, they build on something called a "hash pre-image". What is ...
9
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1answer
2k views

How does Lightning transaction revocation work?

I've been reading about the Lightning Network, and I feel like I alllllmost understand it, but I can't quite figure out how the revocation transactions are designed so user A can claim the channel's ...
10
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1answer
5k views

What is a millisatoshi? I thought satoshi is the smallest unit?

I encountered 'millisatoshi' (msat) while browsing Lightning Network..., see screenshoot below: And subsequently I found it mentioned here: https://github.com/ElementsProject/lightning/blob/master/...
2
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1answer
194 views

Extract lightning network funding transactions with python bitcoin blockchain parser lib

My ultimate goal is to parse funding transactions (as well as channel closes in a later step) from the blockchain. In order to do so I wanted to start with a funding transaction and disect it. ...
2
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2answers
489 views

How to fund a bidirectional payment channel?

Assuming two users want to create a bidirectional channel between themselves such that user_1 wants to pay 2 BTC to user_2 at the end and he divides this amount into 10 micro-payment (each micro-...
2
votes
1answer
704 views

How is node capacity determined on 1ML.com?

I have set up a Casa node, using lnd, and opened 15 payment channels. The capacity of my channels, after almost 3 weeks, is exactly what it was when I opened the channels, leading me to believe that I ...
6
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2answers
3k views

Is it possible to add funds to an already-open lightning network channel?

I would think that user A on a channel should be able to add bitcoins to a channel using the following steps: Create a transaction sending more money into the main multi-sig account Create a refund ...
10
votes
1answer
2k views

When closing the channel for LN - how to calculate the fee for the blockchain transaction?

To be clear: Following is not about fees in Lightning Network. Following is about fees on blockchain for transaction which closes the channel in LN. Channel closing transaction can be created months ...
10
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2answers
679 views

Transaction overriding in lightning network

I'm reading the lightning network whitepaper, and at some point it states this: Therefore, it is possible in bitcoin to devise a bitcoin script whereby all old transactions are invalidated, and ...
4
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3answers
711 views

Can a channel be closed while the funding tx is still stuck in the mempool?

I have attempted to open a channel recently, but accidentally set the fee for the funding transaction too low. Now the funding tx has been stuck in the mempool for over a week. Is there some way to ...
3
votes
1answer
141 views

Why does every HTLC in a commitment transaction require its own signature?

From BOLT 02 we can learn When a node has changes for the remote commitment, it can apply them, sign the resulting transaction (as defined in BOLT #3), and send a commitment_signed message. 1. type: ...
3
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1answer
424 views

Is there a solution to paying high fees when opening and closing lightning channels once we hit a fee only market?

Paying several hundred dollars to open and close a lightning channel seems uneconomical. This is a common argument against lightning by big blockers, I’m yet to read a valid argument against this.
1
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1answer
292 views

Does, or will, Bitcoin Core support Lightning?

I vaguely understand what Lightning is, and would like to take advantage of it. However, actually using it seems extremely "fuzzy". If it requires some separate software to be trusted, ...
1
vote
1answer
563 views

Clarification of lightning network example (putting funds into lightning)

I'm checking How does the Lightning network work in simple terms? answer example: 1) Putting funds into Lightning We both send 0.5 BTC into a shared 2-of-2 multisig address. This requires a ...
1
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1answer
56 views

What are all the payment channels implementations?

I know the Lightning Network (which Electrum wallet experimentally supports) is an implementation of a payment channel, but Mastering Bitcoin (2nd ed.) ch. 12, § "Routed Payment Channels (...
-1
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2answers
159 views

How exactly do I use Lightning Network? Does it even actually exist?

http://lightning.network/how-it-works/ Where is the download button for the official, highly trusted CLI application which works with Bitcoin Core? So that I can actually make Lightning transactions? ...
-1
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1answer
161 views

Why doesn't Bitcoin-Core support Lightning Network? [closed]

I first learned about Bitcoin in 2009. Ever since, I've (very) slowly pieced together information, while shaking off 99% disinformation, about how Bitcoin works. I run a Bitcoin Core fullnode and have ...
5
votes
1answer
439 views

How are Lightning network, duplex channels, and micropayment channels related?

I'm new to Bitcoin and just became familiar with Micropayment channels. But how exactly do they relate to: Lightning network Duplex Micropayment Channels ? I am reading about these but can't find a ...
6
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1answer
2k views

When opening a LN channel using LND, what does 'push-amt' do?

I set up Lightning node (LND) and wanted to receive a payment. Autopilot for managing the channels always creates channels w/ zero remote balance, thus nobody can route a payment to/through my node. ...
9
votes
1answer
533 views

Lightning Network scaling alternatives?

I'm really looking forward to the Lightning Network and all the efforts being put in by Blockchain.info, Blockstream, and others. But I was wondering if there aren't other options for decentralised ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

What makes millisatoshi real?

In the Lightning Network, it's possible to pay in units a thousandth of a satoshi, a millisatoshi. But you can't redeem them directly on the main chain when closing a channel, it will be subject to a ...
7
votes
3answers
1k views

How to manually rebalance Lightning Network channels?

I'm running an LND node that has a few dozen channels open to various relevant vendors/routing nodes. There are a couple specific channels that are open with stores that are getting used with most of ...
5
votes
2answers
318 views

Do the channel balances get publicly announced in real-time on Lightning Network?

In Lightning Network, is the balance publicly announced in real-time? On the one hand, it should be public as it is crucial to the routing mechanism. But, in case that the balance might reveal some ...
5
votes
2answers
956 views

Opening Lightning network channel: who is paying?

When opening a lightning network channel between two parties, which of the following is true: 1) They must both pay a fee to open the channel 2) They might both pay a fee to open the channel 3) ...
5
votes
1answer
681 views

Lightning network and lightweight clients

How will the lightning network handle lightweight clients? Do I understand it correctly that opening a payment channel require writing on the blockchain to protect against double-spend? The integrity ...
4
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2answers
412 views

Obtaining Lightning network graph data

I was wondering if it is possible for me to obtain data about the Lightning network mainnet, particularly the nodes and the edges (channels) in the network. I know that the graph is visualized in ...
3
votes
1answer
166 views

Get public or private key from address with C-lightning

I'm studying Lightning network and I use c-lightning. I can Get a new address with newaddr method, but I can't find private key. My address is bcrt1qmckts70jsq2u5886lgcq2yn7xjmp97t09zlrg, how can I ...
3
votes
1answer
463 views

Lightning Onion Routing vs TOR

From what I can gather BOLT #4 is applying similar methods, such as obscuring previous and future hops from intermediate nodes, to the TOR network for routing payments across the Lightning network. ...
3
votes
2answers
199 views

What are some arguments to why the bitcoin lightning network isn't scalable to billions of users?

There are arguments to why the current version of the bitcoin lightning network isn't scalable. What are some of the main arguments of why that is? Lightning can work in a small country like El ...
3
votes
1answer
743 views

What are atomic multi path payments (AMPs) and why/how is it being implemented in Lightning Network?

There has been a lot of discussion and articles around how the implementation of AMP is going to benefit the routing capabilities of Lightning Network. What is the exact issue in the current ...
3
votes
1answer
748 views

Full node vs lightning node

What is the difference between a full node and a lightning (network) node? If a lightning node, that is not a full node, opens a payment channel with another lightning node, how can the first peer ...
2
votes
2answers
131 views

Lightning - why are commitment transactions supposed to use different keys

In the paper BIP32 and deterministic key derivation are mentioned. But why given that two peers directly exchange messages (i.e., there is no need to obscure anything)? Alice always exchanges state ...
2
votes
3answers
124 views

Why can’t lightning tx’s be signed with sighash single to allow for fee updates?

Are out-of-band fee payments to confirm a lightning closing transaction the only way to manage a situation where the sat/kw of a previously signed commitment tx are simply below market? If additional ...
2
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1answer
435 views

Are lightweight LN wallets vulnerable to transaction withholding?

As far as I know, LN requires the user to watch the blockchain in order to perform penalty in time. However, running full node is probably a heavy burden to some users, especially to mobile phones. I ...
1
vote
1answer
531 views

Lightning network explaination (bidirectional channel funded by one party)

Let's say Alice and Bob want a bidirectional lightning channel with common 2-2 multisig address C. Alice is the only one putting funds in, say 100BTC. They agree on nLock of these funds to be 30 days ...
1
vote
1answer
389 views

Minimum funds required in a channel in Lightning?

I have noticed that, I cannot exhaust the funds in my channel to one side in lnd. I understand this makes sense so as to have some punishment in case of fraud, but I cannot find the reason for the ...
1
vote
1answer
163 views

What happens if R is not revealed by one of Lightning Network nodes? (Payment cancelation)

Let's say we have route of 3 hops A -> B -> C -> D (A pays D). And in the middle of payment (revealing secret R stage) node C disappear from network. In this case B will be not able to finalise ...
0
votes
1answer
121 views

Do extra hop channels in a BOLT#11 invoice need to exist on chain?

According to the BOLT#11 specification, a node may add extra routing information for private channels to an invoice, where they specify the public key of the penultimate hop, along with the ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

Running lightning in prune mode

I am running lightning with the LND implementation and a full node. Nevertheless, I heard that it is possible to use Lighting in pruned mode. How is this possible? I read in the LND install ...
6
votes
2answers
368 views

Does anyone get custodial control of your funds when using Lightning Network?

When I open a payment channel on Lightning Network, do I need to subject my funds to custodial control of another party? Is there a counterparty risk in Lightning Network?
5
votes
1answer
923 views

Qualities of “Pay to Nested Witness Key Hash”

The lightning dev tutorial mentions the np2wkh or Pay to Nested Witness Key Hash address type, and I would like to find out more about it, so far without success. Can anybody explain how they are ...
5
votes
1answer
811 views

Why is my “spendable_msat” much lower than “msatoshi_to_us”?

Today I was attempting to send a Lightning Network payment via c-lightning, version v0.7.1-64-gbb30104, using a channel I established in 2018. Strangely, my payment kept failing even if the ...