Questions tagged [mining-theory]

This tag should be used for questions about the function, the reason for, and the underlying concepts of mining.

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Understanding POW and transactions

If I understand correctly, when calculating a proof of work, the entire header is being used in a sha256 function. Now, whenever a new transaction is added to a pre-mined block, the header completely ...
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1answer
39 views

How do i create/implement a midstate function (One that can accurately calculate the midstate of already mined blocks)

I'm creating an AI controlled bitcoin miner but I'm having trouble manually & locally creating a midstate function to be used for optimizing the mining process. Basically I've created independent ...
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1answer
37 views

Miner attack lightning network

Can miners attack lightning network making it unusable with the hope that the transaction are forced to be processed on-chain, and they earn more transaction fee?
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29 views

Bitcoin mining for the regular person? [duplicate]

Is it feasible for a regular person to mine crypto like Bitcoin with just a couple of machines? Or is the wear and tear to those machines coupled with the electricity costs just too much to make it a ...
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31 views

Start mining without the need to downlod the 360gb blockchain

I am new to bitcoin mining but at least i understand the mathematics behind - the sha256 and finding nonce, i am a junior back-end developer. recently i have being interested in bitcoin mining, as way ...
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39 views

can i diy an asic miner?

Iam interested in mining bitcoin so Iam wondering if I can get a pcb for hashing and bring asic chip that algorithms are sha-256 and stick them together with some other electronics and have a control ...
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3answers
77 views

Why miners looking for zeros?

I am trying to understand how miners work. Is it true that miners are looking for a number of zeros because if they needed to find the complete hash they will be able to see the content of the ...
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1answer
25 views

What function to use to model probabilistic bitcoin mining?

I would like to calculate profitability of various mining strategies. For that, i need to simulate many random mining intervals, that reflect probabilistic distribution of real block mining. What ...
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1answer
115 views

How bitcoin miners choose timestamp in block header when mining?

I did a statistic about the difference between the first announcement time in the network and the timestamp in block header for blocks within 2020. Surprisingly, most (93%) differences are less than ...
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2answers
70 views

Bitcoin could work in principle with pen and paper and carrier pigeons. Could it?

Bitcoin could work in principle with pen and paper and carrier pigeons bringing the result of computations-by-hand back and forth to a public square: the ledger would work, but its intended use case ...
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0answers
26 views

Mining logistics/algorithm beginner numerical example?

I'm learning about the bitcoin mining process. I'm a learn-by-example type, so I'm wondering if anyone has come across the following: A numerical example of the bitcoin mining process. How to get the &...
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1answer
58 views

What is the correct way to calculate timestamp for a Block(125552)?

I am just learning mining process. Today I learned that we have to find nonce for given block header. And for block header we need timestamp in UTC I took the timestamp data from below link of 125552 ...
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1answer
1k views

If two miners come up with two valid nonces, how does consensus take place?

I am trying to understand how the consensus mechanism works. My understanding is that multiple nonces can satisfy the target hash requirement. What I'm trying to understand now is: if two miners come ...
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3answers
77 views

How much time do miners spend validation?

Before mining, miners have to validate previous block and transactions which exist in mempool. Then, they pick up some validated transactions from pool and start mining on top of validated block using ...
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0answers
11 views

How do you pay cryptocurrency miners? [duplicate]

I understand that miner A confirms a transaction and is then paid a certain amount of bitcoin. But is it not that other transaction? That is, someone pays miner A then another miner B has to confirm ...
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2answers
44 views

Help a newbie. Need software [closed]

I want to invest in a mining farm. Everywhere I find only pieces of information. Help please - you need: What software is needed and for what. Where to begin. Equipment and installation conditions. ...
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2answers
71 views

How can double-spending occur?

I'm new to Bitcoin and trying to understand how the double-spending problem can occur and implicitly, the need for "mining". Let's say Bitcoin worked the following way: In the network, one ...
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2answers
164 views

Do nodes or miners have ids

Do bitcoin nodes or miners have ids that can be used to identify them. Like how do we know if it is the same miner that has added several blocks consecutively? Or how can I identify a node uniquely?
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10 views

Custom hardware mining on a block header

I am looking for a hardware miner that would allow me to send it a block header and it would loop through the nonce performing hashing and return either a success with the nonce number or fail (once ...
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0answers
11 views

Is the block header the data that gets hashed or is it the info of the transactions that get hashed? [duplicate]

I just need to know what is the data that gets hashed. Also if the nonce is put from the beginning or if it's only out if it doesn't meet the requirements of the target. Thanks.
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17 views

Help regrading validating a raw Hex Block on desktop?

Is there a desktop C++/Python library to take a raw hex bitcoin block as input and then break it down to various parameters and print it. Moreover it should be able to validate the structure of a ...
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1answer
44 views

Inactive nodes, validation & 51%; full & partial nodes; validation by miners vs wallets

Questions Suppose a node doesn't have internet connection then it would not receive the broadcast of other nodes then does the blockchain propagates without the validation of that node ( that is, is ...
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1answer
101 views

Some doubts regarding the structure of the Coinbase Transaction?

I was trying to understand the structure of coinbase transaction. I tried a few sources but I still have a few doubts regarding the structure with exactly 1 output. Here is what i know and the doubts ...
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1answer
48 views

What parts of a block, other than the nonce, can a miner vary

What are the list of all the variables whose values that the miner can cycle or modify to get a valid hash for this block (with very high probability) ? The only one I am aware of is: Nonce - 4 Bytes....
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1answer
64 views

How to call `getblocktemplate` without running a full node?

I was trying to get into bitcoin mining but I could not find any useful information on calling getblocktemplate without downloading the entire blockchain. Is there a way to get blocks for mining ...
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1answer
88 views

Some questions about specifics on bitcoin mining

Most people mine bitcoin by launching a software on their PC or buying a special miner, both of which abstract out the nitty-gritty of how the mining process work. I am curious however about some ...
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4answers
2k views

Would Bitcoin still work without a target difficulty?

Suppose that Bitcoin nodes had no target difficulty at all, and instead just accepted the block with the largest PoW every 10 minutes. Ignoring the increased bandwidth (since nodes would be ...
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1answer
70 views

How a real mining code treats difficulty?

I have come up recently with "how to mine bitcoin using python" or "how to mine bitcoin using golang" and as I have been observing all these source code, not only I'm confused but ...
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3answers
247 views

Could the threat of centralization be realized if a sufficiently large entity acquired enough Bitcoin?

This is primarily a hypothetical, but not an impossible one. If a sufficiently large entity such as a massive company with a lot of cash or the U.S. Federal Reserve were to acquire more than half of ...
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2answers
84 views

Why should a miner include transactions when creating a new block?

As I understand it, if I'm a miner, and I have 5 transactions in my queue, I then would use the previous blocks hash and my list of transactions to attempt to create a new block. To do this, I must ...
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0answers
28 views

Can dishonest miners spam fake blocks? [duplicate]

How, if at all, does bitcoin disincentivize spam blocks by adversarial/dishonest miners? As I understand it, blocks are propagated throughout the network using a gossip protocol. If that's true, I ...
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1answer
97 views

What is the meaning of Bitcoin terms like `Tx`, `Block-Header` and `Target`

Hello can you please explain what "TXes" are and What "Block Headers & Targets" and "Headers Below Target" mean. Thank you very mcuch.
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3answers
2k views

What (if anything) in the bitcoin protocol prevents bias against certain accounts?

The bitcoin protocol allows miners to choose which transactions to include when they create a block. They can't include any inauthentic transactions, but to allow for an open market of transaction ...
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1answer
60 views

Where is there a graph of total miner revenue (BTC) per unit time (e.g. day)?

Basically I'm looking for this graph, but denominated in BTC https://www.blockchain.com/charts/miners-revenue or this graph plus the block reward https://www.blockchain.com/charts/transaction-fees I'...
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2answers
107 views

How often does the "little man" win [mining]

I have read that long term we expect that the percentage of blocks mined to be forever converging to the percentage of hashpower possessed by the miner. This means if a particular miner has 20% of the ...
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3answers
126 views

Why there are so many miners, if only one will be rewarded?

Why do we need so many miners, if we anyways only can add one block every 10 minutes? I mean if the current block height is x and we now need the block of height x+1 only one miner will be rewarded ...
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1answer
658 views

Why can the block production rate be as low as two per hour?

Why is it taking so long to mine a single block. Like last hour only 2 blocks have been mined. Currently been 45 min since the last block was mined. According to blockchair Hour Blocks 5 ***** ...
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1answer
95 views

How Do I unlock a Bitcoin Blockchain with my Proof Of Work? [duplicate]

Can anyone help with some good explanations on next steps for Bitcoin mining. Hypothetically let's say I create an algorithm that successfully guesses the code to unlock a Bitcoin blockchain gives me ...
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1answer
116 views

Are all "hosted mining" services necessarily scams?

In 2014 or something, I paid a smaller sum of money to some company called "Cloudhashing" or something, which claimed that I was renting part of their Bitcoin mining pool and all I had to do ...
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3answers
202 views

Why do we need miners

I know everyone says that we need mining to solve the double spending issue, but why? OK I am Alice and I want to send Bob some money, but double spend that money. This is the part where you say ...
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1answer
73 views

What happens if a miner deliberately ignores a transaction, and "wins"?

Suppose a miner decides to solve the nonce for a particular block, where the miner deliberately excluded a particular transaction from this block. The miner "wins", i.e. they found the nonce ...
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24 views

What exactly determines how long it takes a given miner to mine 1 btc block? (not talking about hashrate) [duplicate]

So given the number of miners out there working on doing the same thing and that 1 block is mined every 10 minutes, it would appear at face value that only those with the highest hashrates would ever ...
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0answers
36 views

Fee-gathering advantages for geo-optimised miners

As the fee-in-reward percentage grows relative to subidy, will profitability increasingly be proportional to the number of listening nodes a miner has access to? While Bitcoin Core randomises ...
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1answer
43 views

Is it possible that two miners mine blocks with different headers because they include different transactions

Ok, it's a yes or no question: miners can include different transactions in a block, so does that mean that they search for different nonces
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Question about bitcoin future [duplicate]

I've a question in mind: As we all know, bitcoin database hosting is a highly resource consuming operation cause of the way block chain works. For now bitcoin is being hosted and served through mining ...
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1answer
71 views

Is my Bitcoin address valid for mining?

I am looking at the specific block at height 680175. When comparing the address which received the block reward # bitcoin-cli validateaddress 1KFHE7w8BhaENAswwryaoccDb6qcT6DbYY { "isvalid":...
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1answer
417 views

Why are there more than two transaction outputs in a coinbase transaction?

In a coinbase transaction there are always more than two transaction outputs. The first transaction output contains the reward. The second contains the witness reserved value. But why are there other ...
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0answers
28 views

I need help figuring out what happened with my BFGminer overnight

I'm a newbie to crypto and was experimenting with usb erupters because I was getting into ETH mining with my rig and wanted to test it on something less risky. I ran ck pool for my USB erupter just to ...
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1answer
40 views

How is the witness reserved value set in a coinbase transaction?

In a coinbase transaction the second transaction output seems always to be a 32-byte witness reserved value. Is there any constraint on this value?
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1answer
49 views

How to set the sequence number in a coinbase transaction?

The sequence number seems to be used for locking a transaction in mempool. However, the coinbase transaction is not part of the mempool and thus the sequence number does not make sense. Is it just an &...

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