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Questions tagged [mining-theory]

This tag should be used for questions about the function, the reason for, and the underlying concepts of mining.

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9 views

What is the solution for addressing split about other cryptocuurancies? [on hold]

I want to know how much other cryptocurrencies protocols are different from the Bitcoin protocol about addressing the splits? You know that split is when two miners mine a block with the same height. ...
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1answer
33 views

How long does it take to find a UTXO in UTXOs set?

to validate a TX, the miner or full node should first find the UTXO. How long does it take to find a specific UTXO in a list of UTXOs set? Right now, there are around 100 million of UTXOs. Then, how ...
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30 views

How can we find the hashrate distribution of different pools? [duplicate]

we can see that different websites propose some graphs in which the hash rate distribution is depicted, like the attached Figure. 1) I want to know that how do these websites approximate this ...
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1answer
55 views

Who can predict that a benign attacker has 51% hash rate of the system?

In the Bitcoin network, suppose that there is an attacker who has 60% hash-rate (hr) and then other users have 40% hr. Therefore, it is obcioust if other users generate any new block, attacker can ...
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1answer
23 views

what is the most suitable time interval for updating information on a block while mining the block

So, Bitcoin block consists of some static (magic number, version, previous hash...) and dynamic (timestamp, Merkle Root, transaction count and transactions) elements. What I don't understand is if we ...
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3answers
95 views

Don't miners control who is allowed to make transactions?

Simple question really, considering theres a very small group of miners controlling the chain ATM. Whats to stop them from being forced by the goverment to disallow certain transactions or just mining ...
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1answer
29 views

How to transfer hash power from one pool to another

Is it possible to transfer hash power from one pool to another? If yes, how?
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2answers
39 views

How do more leading zeroes make it more difficult to find a block?

A couple of articles describing the process of mining do say that the more miners are in the network, the more 0 numbers are included in the encoded hash of the particular block. I cannot find an ...
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1answer
32 views

Could a malicious attacker subvert the Bitcoin network by failing to create a block?

I know its astronomically improbable, but say a malicious node "wins" the proof of work inherent to the Bitcoin protocol. If a malicious node simply waited indefinitely, or maliciously disconnected ...
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2answers
56 views

Who will be the future miners?

We know that the bitcoin for mining a block is going to converge to approximately zero as the number of bitcoins will be almost constant after a certain amount of time. So, mining will no more ...
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0answers
28 views

What is the formula for inferring hash rate from difficulty and block frequency?

Two parts to this question 1/ There have recently been concerns over drops in hash rate observed on sites such as blockchain.com. However, my understanding is that hash rate is inferred from the ...
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1answer
29 views

How the difficulty of the network affect the average block mining time if we have static hash power?

Let's suppose that I have 500 KH/s of hash power overall from my mining rig. I'm about to start mining coin X and its network difficulty is Y. Current hashrate of the whole network is 100 KH/s and ...
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1answer
50 views

If I have 51% of the capacity of the entire network, can I mine absolutely all the blocks faster than the network?

I'm really wondering can I mine absolutely all the blocks in the network faster than rest miners with their 49% hashing power not for the purpose of conducting double-spend attack?
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when a miner solves the problem in less than one timestamp then what does it do with its extra capacity?

If a miner solves the problem in less than one second then how does it use the extra capacity.
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2answers
881 views

Which block header fields are miners able to change in an effort to avoid having to recalculate the Merkle Root?

In addition to the nonce and the Merkle Root, there are 4 other fields in the header - version, previous header hash, time and nbits. Assuming a miner does not want to change the merkle root because ...
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1answer
23 views

How can size of a block be significantly small? [duplicate]

As we all know bitcoin block size should be sth about 1MiB. (Some blocks about 2MB). And this is because miners put all transactions to the block every 10 minutes. So what happens technically that ...
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Are miner builder/sellers profitability calculations true?

regarding to this question here How many hash calculation is needed to reach one BTC? , it takes about 1387 years with 1 TH/s power rate to reach 1 BTC. So if someone has a machine with 53TH/s power ...
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1answer
45 views

How many hash calculation is needed to reach one BTC?

What I am asking for is a formula and it's source of numbers to put in there and calculate how many hashes must be calculated to get 1 bitcoin today(or every other day in future)? For example, if I ...
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1answer
26 views

Why all miners produce the same blocks

My understanding is that all miners are feeded with transactions published by full node servers, but I didn't understand why they end up with exactly the same transactions in their created blocks ? ...
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2answers
1k views

Why is the winner of Pow different everytime?

I just read about how miners have to change the nonce bit in order to find an hash below a certain result. Granted each miner process it the same way, incrementally, adding 1 and hashing, adding one ...
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How does proof of work works? [duplicate]

I am wondering how POW calculation is working ? Is it basicly a hash brute force ? So it is based on probability and luck for miners ? Thanks
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1answer
32 views

Mining operation calculation

My goal is to understand bitcoin. I have read what happens during a transaction and have a question about it: When a transaction happen, the miners compute a value called "prof of work". This value ...
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1answer
43 views

How can i enable mining

My goal is to understand bitcoin. I do not want to earn money with mining. I have a server without GPU (intel i5 with 4 cores) Here is what i've done: I have downloaded, maked and installed bitcoin ...
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1answer
26 views

A question about transaction broadcasting and block creation

Let's say we have transaction X and transaction Y. The timestamp of X is chronologically earlier than that of Y. X's spender broadcasts X to the network and the same goes for Y's spender. Let's say ...
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1answer
38 views

using rpccookiefile instead of username and password for antminers

I mine using username and password at the moment but as bitcoin core is changing over to rpccookiefile. My question is, if i use rpccookiefile how do i point my antminers to my local bitcoind 'pool' ...
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1answer
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Miners conceding forks

When bitcoin forks, does anyone know how many blocks ahead one chain gets before the miners on the shorter chain concede? I am doing a research project on modeling Bitcoin, and I am wondering how ...
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2answers
69 views

Mining Probability

Assuming two miners have a (1/x) chance of finding a block over some time period, is the probability of both miners finding a block within that period simply (1/x^2)? More generally, would n miners ...
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1answer
33 views

Timer-based consensus algorithm in blockchain

Assume that there is an algorithm that ensures: 1- That a full node chooses an honest random wait time. 2- That the same node has waited the specified amount of time before proceeding to mine a block. ...
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1answer
76 views

How has the Bitcoin average block size recently risen above 3 MB?

I was aware that the block size could rise above the 1 MB cap due to SegWit. However, my understanding was that the block size would still be limited under SegWit. My understanding of SegWit is that ...
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1answer
27 views

When a new block is propagated, nodes validate from genesis block to propagated block?

For example, I have a nth block and when n + 1 th block is propagated, i have to compare with n+1 block's previous hash and nth block's hash for validation. It is pretty trivial. But do i have to ...
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1answer
49 views

Is there any guarantee that mining will be profitable?

I'm not a money person. I deal with it only out of necessity. So say I have $1000.00 worth of Bitcoin and decide to enter the world of "mining". What's the physical process on my end and is there any ...
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2answers
25 views

Please guide what should i do

Am new in bitcoin world and didn't started it yet... A man from USA saying to create blockchain wallet n top up then share ur email n wallet address not login not password to connect my wallet to a s9 ...
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2answers
53 views

What would be the consequence of a constant network difficulty?

Say the difficulty of the bitcoin network was not variable. Then regardless of the network hash-rate, the mining puzzle will be the same. What would that mean in terms of the security and economics of ...
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0answers
49 views

Will Bitcoin mining stop?

According to this site there are 3,260,162.5 bitcoins left to be mined. Do you know if eventually Bitcoin mining will stop after that? If yes which other cryptocurrency can be mined for ever? Thank ...
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Stochastically, fork can influence on block generation time?

I have known that we can calculate a network hashrate using ellipse time during 1 round(2016 blocks for adjusting difficulty) Stochastically, we can calculate a contribution of all miner for one ...
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2answers
41 views

Bitcoin transactions validation process

I have a general understanding of building blocks. But am hoping someone can fill in the details/gaps. Also, can you correct if something is not right? Thanks. Scenario: Bitcoin transactions are ...
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1answer
57 views

What is a relationship with total hash rate(hash power) and average block generation time?

This chart - hash rate means total hash rate of All minor? I think the most significant factor for difficulty and block generation time is the hash rate of the biggest mining pool not total hash rate ...
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1answer
39 views

Is Block Finalization a valid development to remove the threat of 51% attacks?

https://www.reddit.com/r/btc/comments/bq8cqo/btctop_currently_has_51_hashing_power/eo2p4md?utm_source=share&utm_medium=web2x A recent comment from a Reddit user in response to BTC.top acquiring ...
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1answer
33 views

What is stopping pool managers to fake a miner?

What if a pool manager introduces a miner that is not there and then uses the reward distribution?
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6answers
7k views

51% attack - apparently very easy? refering to CZ's “rollback btc chain” - How to make sure such corruptible scenario can never happen so easily?

I was shocked to see binance CZ comment to literally "roll back" the bitcoin chain by just "calling" in some favors from "friendly" Asian miners . This ONE person could effectively do it??? I mean ...
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1answer
43 views

Does the pool miners in mining pool receive the same block in case of a fork?

For example there are 2 mining pools A and B and they mined a block in same time. Then, A mining pool got a block that A mining pool mined? Or nodes in mining pool receive independently so they ...
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1answer
54 views

How do miners construct and submit blocks [duplicate]

1) Assume there are 20 nodes in network and all are receiving all transactions. Afterr 10 min they all pick transactions from their transaction pool and start creating a block. Now, will all nodes use ...
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32 views

Orphaned block probability ratio

The probability of orphaned blocks should also take into consideration the proportion of the total mining hash power that the miner has. If M_i and M_j are 2 miners with p_i= 2* p_j (proportion of ...
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1answer
95 views

How does the 51 percent or 2/3 majority voting rule work?

For a block to be added to the chain, it needs vote from majority of miners, is that correct? If yes, does that mean a single block gets worked upon by all of the miners?
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2answers
59 views

Is the time taken for the verification of a transcation not much relevant?

By verification I do not mean the puzzle solving/hash calculating part but the part involving searching all of the blocks to check if the transaction is valid or not? For example if A transferred ...
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2answers
884 views

What is preventing me from simply constructing a hash that's lower than the current target?

I just started learning about Bitcoin, and something I can figure out is why miners have to use a random process (hashing a nonce) to get lower than the target. For example, if the target is ...
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1answer
46 views

Bitcoin fork resolution - Fork losers download previous blocks 'til common block?

When resolving a naturally occurring fork in Bitcoin, do the miners who were working on the orphaned fork download previous blocks from the miner who won the block reward that resolved the fork until ...
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2answers
51 views

Why dont' nodes change the block version number when the nonce overflows?

After computing 4 billion nonces, the miner is supposed to update the merkle root. Why don't they choose a new nonce and assign it to the block version number and begin again? It would save time and ...
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1answer
28 views

Would it be possible to store hashes generated in a file, then brush through them to find out if they are under the target?

I have been wondering if it would be possible to generate hashes, store them in a file, then use them as hashes when mining. When you would mine, you would not generate the hashes, but instead, just ...
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2answers
100 views

Can the fees in a coinbase be used to launder Bitcoins?

Generally Bitcoins coming from a coinbase are considered clean as they are newly generated. However while answering this question I realized that mining pools could offer to launder Bitcoins in the ...