Questions tagged [mining-theory]

This tag should be used for questions about the function, the reason for, and the underlying concepts of mining.

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Arbitrage Opportunity for Miners

I am thinking of the arbitrage opportunity for the miners by reordering or any sort of manipulations in transactions waiting for confirmation. I observed such a case in Ethereum(a paper), but not ...
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Fee-gathering advantages for geo-optimised miners

As the fee-in-reward percentage grows relative to subidy, will profitability increasingly be proportional to the number of listening nodes a miner has access to? While Bitcoin Core randomises ...
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Is it possible that two miners mine blocks with different headers because they include different transactions

Ok, it's a yes or no question: miners can include different transactions in a block, so does that mean that they search for different nonces
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Question about bitcoin future [duplicate]

I've a question in mind: As we all know, bitcoin database hosting is a highly resource consuming operation cause of the way block chain works. For now bitcoin is being hosted and served through mining ...
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Is my Bitcoin address valid for mining?

I am looking at the specific block at height 680175. When comparing the address which received the block reward # bitcoin-cli validateaddress 1KFHE7w8BhaENAswwryaoccDb6qcT6DbYY { "isvalid":...
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Why are there more than two transaction outputs in a coinbase transaction?

In a coinbase transaction there are always more than two transaction outputs. The first transaction output contains the reward. The second contains the witness reserved value. But why are there other ...
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I need help figuring out what happened with my BFGminer overnight

I'm a newbie to crypto and was experimenting with usb erupters because I was getting into ETH mining with my rig and wanted to test it on something less risky. I ran ck pool for my USB erupter just to ...
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How is the witness reserved value set in a coinbase transaction?

In a coinbase transaction the second transaction output seems always to be a 32-byte witness reserved value. Is there any constraint on this value?
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How to set the sequence number in a coinbase transaction?

The sequence number seems to be used for locking a transaction in mempool. However, the coinbase transaction is not part of the mempool and thus the sequence number does not make sense. Is it just an &...
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How Bitcoin restricts the mining time?

How Bitcoin restricts the mining time? We know cryptocurrency systems restrict the mining time of a block to a certain limit for security reasons. For example, mining time for Bitcoin is ~10 minutes. ...
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How to install the latest bfgminer binaries directly from terminal without 'aptitude' on a raspberry pi 4 8gb running raspbian?

months ago I found an entry on StackExchange or somewhere else on how to install the latest (!) bfgminer binaries directly from terminal. I can not find the stackexchange post, no matter how deep I ...
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Why does decoded block data not match coinbase transaction input?

I am looking at the specific block at height 680175. Via bitcoin-cli getblock 00000000000000000004dbd66fa71fdcd62658bf8c8e2e153521257ad5858c71 0 I obtained the serialized, hex-encoded block data. ...
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Why does the mined block differ so much from the block template?

I am looking at the specific block at height 680175. At the time when the block was not mined yet, I received the block template via bitcoin-cli getblocktemplate '{"rules": ["segwit&...
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Educational sample of minimal working mining code

I would like if someone could point me to a minimal program source code that does solo minig on a CPU. (Can assume a running bitcoind/full node) Something that in theory (obviously not in practice) ...
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Why does mining / validation of new blocks have to be complicated / time consuming? [duplicate]

Why does mining / validation of new blocks have to be complicated / time consuming ? Why it can't be as simple as just find a hash for a text? Is it just to control / limit the amount of new crypto ...
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About mining difficulty [duplicate]

I hope you’re all doing well during this COVID-19 period. I was wondering how you can calculate the difficulty rate of a coin (Mining purposes)?
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Looking for feedback on (Browser-based) Blockchain Simulator

I have created a Blockchain 'simulator' in JavaScript, for the purpose of helping explain how the technology works. It is complementary to a website I have set up years ago, where I attempt to explain ...
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how to identify as soon as possible that a new block was mined

From the miner perspective: You have a worker, fetching data from a full-node with getblocktemplate to create a candidate block and push it to the miners, to effective mine it. As soon as your miner ...
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How mining works for a new born cryptocurrency [duplicate]

What I have learnt that mining is breaking a block which contains transactions using hashing algorithm (Sorry if this is wrong please do correct me). Now my question is how mining will work for a new ...
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Stratum: How many shares should I submit per job?

I'm implementing a bitcoin CPU miner just for fun in python. I've been reading a lot about bitcoin and the protocol pools use for communication and coordinating workers but there is a key concept I ...
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1answer
169 views

Are Bitcoin's blocks signed by the miner?

To my understanding, at no point in the Bitcoin Whitepaper does it say that blocks are signed by the miner. However, one could see the advantage of having blocks signed. Thus I wonder if in the ...
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basics of cryptocurrency [duplicate]

I recently became interested in cryptocurrency and its mining process but there are a few things I don't understand very well and I am still trying to learn the basics more before getting into trading ...
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How does a blockchain relying on PoW verify that a hash is computed using an algorithm and not made up by a human?

How does a blockchain verify that the hash provided (the one with the leading zeros that is supposed to be unique, computed using lots of processing power) is indeed unique and that it wasn't just a ...
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Is the block header in stratum protocol double hashed?

I'm trying to understand how the block header is done when mining in a stratum pool. Should the block header be hashed once or double hashed ? the block header consists of the version, previous hash, ...
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How does the mining pool know our hashrate/our share?

Scenario: Person A: has a good mining rig and run for 24 hours and produces: 1000 mega hashes, but found only 1 share. Person B: has a bad mining rig and run for 24 hours and produces: 1 mega hash, ...
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What algorithm do miners (mining pools) use the generate different blocks as they exhaust the nonce values

As I understand it, the building of a block goes something like this (please correct): Collect a bunch of new transactions. Hash all those transactions. Generate a coinbase transaction using the ...
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Is Mining Bitcoin While The Price is Low or High better?

I have a few questions: Does the reward for Bitcoin increase/decrease when the price goes up and down? Is it more profitable to mine when Bitcoin is down, or when it is up? Thank you!
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What is the purpose of submit header relative to submit block?

I understand what the usage is for submit block, but submit header exists in the RPC API reference. Is that a legacy function? Or can it still be used? Thanks
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Can one manually type the mined block on bitcoin core and broadcast it?

I get that all miners compete to find the block first, which is then broadcasted to other nodes who then verify it. But what spikes my interest is would it be possible to broadcast the block to the ...
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How wallets/ miners differentiate bitcoin and bitcoin cash (forks of cryptos)? (technical IT question)

I could not find the answer by web search. People usually interested in economic differences. I guess it is a question for those who know how mining algorithms works. Internet is kind of decentralized....
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Trust in bitcoin networking

I am new to the subject, but as I was studying I wasn't able to understand something and I would appreciate if anyone could help me. I understand that in most aspects bitcoin doesn't rely on trusting ...
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3answers
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What would happen if the BTC price collapsed and the reward for mining dropped below the cost of mining?

Miners will only mine bitcoins if the reward they get from mining outweighs the cost of mining it. The network difficulty is adjusted every 2016 blocks (approximately every 2 weeks). If the price ...
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Who and How are Bitcoin Mining Puzzles Orgiinated [duplicate]

For "miners", who makes up the "complex mathematical puzzles" that have to be solved?
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Process for finding nonce

Assume we have a transaction in hex (tx_hex) and we want to find a nonce such that SHA-256(SHA-256(nonce|| tx_hex)) = new_transaction_id ('||' denotes concatenation) first bits consist of 32 zeros. ...
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What would the expected block mining time be if 30% of the total network hashrate disappeared suddenly?

Ignoring the economic reasons as to why this may or may not happen. If for some reason the network hashrate suddenly dropped by 30% immediately after a difficulty adjustment and remained at that ...
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Which transactions go through the SHA256 process of “trying to win the new block”?

It is commonly said that a new block that is hoped to be added to the existing blockchain is filled with transactions, and together with a nonce, go through SHA256 twice, and tries to be a small ...
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ELI5: does the number of 0's required in mining for SHA256 over the years strictly increase, or does it depend on how many miners there are?

It is said that to discover a block, the person has to get a SHA256 number that has all 0's for the first 72 bits. Does this number 72 change and become bigger and bigger over the years (say, every 4 ...
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What prevents miners from inserting fake transactions given SegWit?

If I'm understanding segwit correctly, miners have to verify signatures in order to include a transaction into a block that they are mining. However, miners are not required to verify signatures in ...
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How basecoin transaction is added to a block?

I'm new to blockchain and bitcoin. In my understanding, miners are trying to find a nonce that is added to a block, and then the hash of the block will have some zeros at first and the first ...
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Are ASICs Resistant to Malware Attacks?

One of the arguments made in favor of relying on ASIC mining hardware to secure the Bitcoin blockchain is that commodity hardware is more prone to a 51% attack since an attacker could easily infect ...
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How do miners decide when to give up on a block?

So in my understanding, miners bundle a list of transactions into a block and begin working on it until they can generate a valid proof of work. There are various reasons to group fewer or more ...
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ASIC-Resistant Proof of Work

Bitcoin uses a Proof of Work algorithm that makes it the perfect victim of ASIC mining. As a result, it is not very decentralized (more than 50% of Bitcoin's hash power is concentrated in China and ...
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Does difficulty adjustment apply when you mine in secret?

Imagine you have an enormous amount of hashpower (say a nation state level attack) and you mine in secret. Does the difficulty adjustment apply specifically to your secret chain? Because that would ...
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Can miners collude to bypass the penalty based revocation system of the lightning network?

The core lightning security assumption relies on a punishment mechanism called “Justice Transaction”. However, how can you prevent a malicious user from colluding with a miner, and producing a block ...
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575 views

How does the BTC protocol guarantee that a “main” blockchain emerges?

I'm reading up on the bitcoin/blockchain technology. Usually, the part about proof of work and how to create a block is well explained. However, what is never explained is how/why the communication of ...
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Could a miner set a maximium transaction fee rate?

Could a miner set a maximimum transaction fee rate? I mean validate only transactions between x and y satoshis/byte? I know is not clever. Is it possible?
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373 views

How to setup cgminer.conf for solo mining?

How can I configure an ASIC such as S9 using cgminer.conf, in order to do solo mining? I would appreciate a guidance for creating the config file.
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114 views

Mining Bitcoin at 1000x Efficiency

Bitcoin secures its network by forcing miners to solve a cryptographic puzzle who's difficulty increases based on the total hashing power of the network. If someone were to develop an algorithm that ...
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121 views

What prevents somebody from “re-mining” an already existing Bitcoin?

This may reveal that I know nothing about math or cryptography. Let's say that a given Bitcoin was "lost" in that it was once mined and assigned/given to a person who had it in their wallet....
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How does a Bitcoin block get generated and 'agreed upon' by everyone?

When a set of new transactions is broadcast to all the Bitcoin mining pools, my understanding is that they all start working on a new block to include all those transactions. But how is it agreed ...

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