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Questions tagged [mining-theory]

The underlying concepts and game theory of mining.

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When exactly does the miner get their reward?

When exactly does the miner get their reward via the coinbase tx? Say I am a miner and I have mined a block. I broadcast it to peers A, B, and C and they then broadcast it to their peers and so on. ...
RedGrittyBrick's user avatar
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Can multiple candidate blocks be mined concurrently by the miner, even if at the end only one block gets added to the chain every 10 mins?

I read that every 10 minutes, the miner would fetch txs from the tx_mempool, process them, create a candidate block, do the proof of work and then broadcast it to the network. Does this mean that the ...
Geek's user avatar
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Valid block header versions bits

I am currently trying to learn what values miners can adjust in the block headers when hashing them. I see that the version number is routinely changed to some random bit string (which seems a bit odd ...
Luke Taylor's user avatar
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How to generate coinbase transaction in Python?

I know that on this forum a lot of questions on this topic, I have checked most of these, but can't find the solution for my task. I am creating my own algorithm for solo mining bitcoin on Python. I ...
Alex Radik's user avatar
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Any man-in-the-middle (MITM) hashrate theft examples

One benefit of Stratum V1 to Stratum V2 is protection from man-in-the-middle (MITM) hashrate theft. Are there any documented examples of man-in-the-middle (MITM) hashrate theft in practice ? Like ...
WebOrCode's user avatar
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What determines the order of transactions in a block?

I've been looking at the live mempool on mempool.space, and while most transactions are sorted in order of highest sat/vB to lowest, I've noticed some that standout with extremely high sat/vB but are ...
Blank Dev's user avatar
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bitcoin block time analysis with conjuction to propagation

For both scenarios that I will describe below, assume the 2 things. that network propagation for blocks always 6 seconds. that we start looking at my analysis from time = t0 and at that t0, every ...
Giorgi Lagidze's user avatar
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2 answers
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Theoretical "attack" when the difficulty decreases

After a halving, if price increase doesn't compensate the decrease of the reward for miners, some of them will become unprofitable, and they will stop mining. With less miners, complexity decreases, ...
mathboi's user avatar
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Do any mining rig configurations divide hashing into pieces to be distributed across nodes?

Are there any mining rig configurations in which a block is divided some how so that multiple nodes can process a piece of the same block in some sort of divide and conquer approach? For example if ...
Usman Mutawakil's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
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What incentive do miners have not to lie about the time it takes them to mine a block?

What encourages miners (all miners; regardless of how much hash rate they have) to include real time in the block and not to agree among themselves to include a time such as if it took them 10 minutes ...
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Timelocked bribing

Did anyone observe any instance of Timelocked Bribing in Bitcoin transaction? Are there any specific articles that points out that the attack has been mounted in reality?
Subhra Mazumdar's user avatar
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Does the hashrate/hash power represent the number of single or double sha256 operations that can be done per second? [duplicate]

When we state that someone has, for example, a hashrate of 240 H/s, does it imply the capability to perform 240 SHA256 hash operations (equivalent to 120 double-SHA256 operations) or 240 double-SHA256 ...
LeaBit's user avatar
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Difficulty Leading Zeroes Problem [duplicate]

Bitcoin mining difficulty always increases, meaning the target decreases. There is only 256 bits in SHA256 number. Can the difficulty theoretically get to 0, meaning that for the block to be mined, ...
Michael Jackson's user avatar
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2 answers
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How does the network protect itself against attacks where one miner with a lot of hashing power lies that it takes 10 minutes to create a block?

Assume some very "strong" miner that can produce a new block (find a correct nonce) on average every 3 minutes. Everything is fine as long as he sets the right timestamp (the one ...
LeaBit's user avatar
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Will the majority of miners quit mining next year if the price of bitcoin remains as it is today? Can it harm the network?

Below are some parameters that apply to the Bitcoin network today Current price for producing one Bitcoin block is around ~$150,000. Current price for one Bitcoin is ~$45,000. Current reward for ...
Qwerty M3's user avatar
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Is mining Bitcoin on costumers machine a financially viable plan?

I don't know if it is the right spot to post but my post has been removed from Reddit so... I am currently exploring an idea on which I would like to gather your insights and opinions. The idea ...
KNZ's user avatar
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How to create coinbase? How to use witness?

BIP141 adds a new rule called "witness commitment". The document says: "The commitment is recorded in a scriptPubKey of the coinbase transaction." I didn't quite understand what ...
Jack Green's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
299 views

Could the Bitcoin network freeze someone's assets?

Strictly as an example, let's say some businessman owns a lot of Bitcoin, and he makes a disparaging comment online about a certain country that happens to have the majority of Bitcoin miners. Could ...
MWB's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
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If you have the required mining power, is it possible to mine your transaction in the next block without propagating it to the network?

Let's imagine that you have 51% of all mining power. Is it possible to put a single transaction in the next block without putting it into the mempool and/or propagating the tx to the other peers ...
Efe's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
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What if a miner just broadcasts the header and never gives the body? What will happen?

What if a miner just broadcasts the header and never broadcasts the body? For example: A miner, after having successfully mined some block, just broadcasts the header for all other miners and hide the ...
longyue li's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
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What are the exact degrees of freedom in finding a valid block?

I am working on an educational project for bitcoin mining. I searched as much as I could but still haven't understood the following questions: What are the "exact" degrees of freedom in ...
Marlex Blank's user avatar
3 votes
4 answers
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What percentage of mined nonces fail to join the consensus blockchain?

From Wikipedia: The PoW requires miners to find a number called a nonce (a number used just once), such that when the block content is hashed along with the nonce, the result is numerically smaller ...
MWB's user avatar
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Would it work just fine if "bits" was set to "1cd86a52" instead of "1d00d86a" at the first difficulty adjustment?

The first difficulty adjustment on the network happened at block 32256. The time for block 32255 (one block before the adjustment) is 1262152739 and the time for block 30239 (2016 blocks before the ...
Pedro Martins Timóteo da Costa's user avatar
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Shouldn't nodes get reward by protecting the protocol?

I can assume that every currency is basically consists of two major components: The protocol The history of every coin In Bitcoin the history is protected against modification by miners hash power ...
Amir reza Riahi's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
89 views

How does blind merge mining (BMM) work?

Proposals like Spacechain and Drivechain rely on blind merge mining (BMM). But how does it work and how it differs from normal merge mining?
fiatjaf's user avatar
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How does mining work on a technical level?

I want to make a scrypt/sha256 miner for Bitcoin and altcoins in C to learn more about how mining works in Bitcoin, altcoins and learn more C. getblocktemplate gives some data that is needed for ...
IdotMaster1's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
210 views

Why does bitcoin.core's algorithm uses ancestor score instead of just ancestor fee rate to select transactions?

In bitcoin.core's implementation of the greedy knapsack algorithm to select transactions to go into a block for mining, the heuristic used to order transactions is based on an "ancestor score&...
algo2043's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
91 views

Why is block 679115 empty?

This block is completely empty (except the coinbase transaction). Why would a miner want to discard the fees it can take from transactions? I know it's possible that a miner mine an empty block. But I ...
Amir reza Riahi's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
204 views

Delay time for the second block of Bitcoin blockchain

According to the data stored in the blockchain, the genesis block is mined at Jan 03, 2009. The second block is mined at Jan 09, 2009, 6:24:25 AM. Which is 6 days later. At first, it seems rational to ...
Amir reza Riahi's user avatar
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nonce search algorithm

I have a question about the nonce search algorithm. Let's say I have a s9 miner and my competitor has a more powerful s19. We both check nonces from 0 sequentially, so I will check nonces that my ...
Oleh Baidiuk's user avatar
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Mining with multiple pools

Miners pool their hashpower together to reduce payout variance. The larger the pool, the lower the variance, which unfortunately incentivizes centralization. Today, over 50% of the total hashrate is ...
Vojtěch Strnad's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
60 views

Are pool provided merkle branches trustable?

I'm a beginner is this field. Can someone explain to me how mining pool provided merkle branches are valid? Normally, when we make the root, it starts from top to bottom, a single change in order can ...
chronus's user avatar
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Has anybody ever got email in their doc saying they have funds from BTC Bitcoin bonus giveaway [duplicate]

So I got an email from in my docs saying that I had to go to this page and I had all mining earnimgs everything that I hadn't withdrawed from a year ago on on a platform I let them use my IP to mine ...
Blindmelon 's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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With the ongoing War, do you think it will affect Bitcoin Mining?

The Russia-Ukraine war has so many effects on inflation in many countries. Will it also affect the mining of Bitcoin, especially cloud mining?
vash's user avatar
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Bitcoin mining pre-computation benefits?

I asked this question on another forum but did not get any responses so I thought I'd try here. I've been researching bitcoin mining for a while and I have a work-in-progress hypothesis that could ...
arikachimoaririki's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
113 views

How the system works when there's no block reward?

I've came across some articles arguing that it is a good idea to have no block reward at all, but I struggle to understand, how this would work. I understand that the incentive for miners would be ...
mathematician's user avatar
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Setup bitcoind and be able to make a call to GetBlockTemplate

I have been able to get bitcoind started by giving it the right data directory and configuration file. I downloaded and ran rpcauth.py from https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/master/share/...
MarkRLV's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
202 views

What is a pair of nonces?

From https://www.sps.ed.ac.uk/sites/default/files/pictures/ekja03/Mining25.pdf page 10: The bitcoin system is therefore designed to ensure that it takes around ten minutes on average before any miner ...
Erik Kaplun's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
284 views

What happens if two miners have a few identical transactions in their block when one of them validates his block and appends it to the blockchain?

Let's assume 2 miners, A and B, are adding / validating transactions and build a block. Both blocks contain 50 identical transactions. All other transactions differ. Now one miner, B, solves the ...
Oliver's user avatar
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Can you infer the geolocation of a stratum server from its address?

Is it possible to determine the geolocation of a bitcoin mining pool's stratum server address? For instance, Antpool has a server with the address stratum.antpool.com:3333. See: https://help.antpool....
Apod's user avatar
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Why is randomness needed in Proof-of-Work?

In Proof-of-Work (PoW) mining, a miner that contributes 10% of the network hash rate will on average receive 10% of the mining rewards. "On average" means that 10% of blocks are mined by ...
arni's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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What prevents miners from removing transactions when validating a node? [duplicate]

Simple question: when a miners receives a block of transactions, he can't add fraudulent transactions because they need to be appropriately signed, but what prevents him from erasing a tx? If he ...
RareMonkey's user avatar
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Who chooses the nonce and the hash from a previous block?

When mining a block, who gets to choose the hash from the previous block, the nonce and its adjustment. Is it all the miners who choose or the ones who successfully found the block? For either answer, ...
Ghost's user avatar
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2 answers
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alternative definition of Proof of Work

If the goal of PoW is only to have a single truth verifiable by all to which to converge. Is it correct to say that PoW is only a method that serves to make it very unlikely that many solutions ...
Stef's user avatar
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1 vote
3 answers
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Could centralisation of miners lead to censorship?

Censorship meaning: Only government approved addresses are allowed to have their transactions added to the blockchain. Scenario: Miners are centralised within a geographic boundary with significantly ...
MManke's user avatar
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0 answers
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How do we know a new transaction is not corrupted/manipulated? [duplicate]

let's say I want to send a certain amount of bitcoin to a certain client, but my computer is connected to a public wifi, how do I make sure there is not a man in the middle altering the transaction ...
EpsilonDeltaCriterion's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
150 views

How does Bitcoin prevent double-spending without penalizing miners?

In the network nodes below as shown in picture: Let's say A is trying to double spend by sending bitcoins to B,C (A->B) and (A->C) and let's say A tried to relay (A->B) transaction to honest ...
Arjun Reddy's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
172 views

When The Unlocking Script Is Created, Who Verifies The Script?

I am familiar with the many ways an unlocking script is created. But in this scenario, lets use P2PKH. When we generate the unlocking script (excuse the simplicity): <dup> <hash160> <...
Jamo's user avatar
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1 answer
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Is it practical to prevent a 51%-attack by having a second mining algorithm?

While miners use special hardware designed to perform only one job (e.g. calculating sha256) changing that job would make all that hardware useless. So, can the bitcoin community use this ...
Amir reza Riahi's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
48 views

When was proof of stake theorized?

Hi l've seen a while ago that Proof of stake concensus mechanism was theorized a while ago (before proof of work) in distributed systems. But I can't find any source of that, while searching 'proof of ...
SadPepo's user avatar
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