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Questions tagged [mining-theory]

This tag should be used for questions about the function, the reason for, and the underlying concepts of mining.

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Upper limit on BTC PoW hash rate?

Is there an upper limit on the amount of hash rate for Bitcoin's Proof of Work? Is there a big difference security-wise going from 175 EH to 275 EH?
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1 answer
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Isn't the power of blockchain coming from decentralization instead of immutability of blocks?

I've only started exploring the working of blockchain. So what I've gained from guides on Google has me into thinking that what makes blockchain records resilient to corruption is distributed storage, ...
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4 votes
1 answer
2k views

How is mining the exact same hash on every computer avoided?

How does the mining clients make sure that the seeds are not the exact same computed on every mining rig in the world with for example a GTX 1080 with the same speed? So that it is not the quickest ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Probability of mining maximum of 3 block in next 20 minute

I know that block interval in bitcoin blockchain is exponential distribution. Now I want to know what is the probability that maximum of 3 block will be mined in the next 20 minute?
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0 answers
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What Is The Script Signature And PUSHDATA operation? [duplicate]

In bitcoin transactions, there is a part of the transaction known as the scriptsig. What does this mean? Also, what is the ScriptSig (PUSHDATA opcode) operation.
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How Is it possible that bitcoin blocks store transaction data in 32-bit SHA256 strings. How would nodes know the transaction?

What i mean is that a traditional bitcoin block has performed 2 SHA256 iterations on the raw hex data of a single transaction. Then it is stored in the block. But since it has been SHA256'd, how can ...
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Does The Bitcoin Network Have A Way To Alert Nodes Of A Network Issue/Bug?

I know that the Bitcoin Network would send an alert message which follows: int32_t nID The alert identification number - this allows nodes to identify double-messages. int64_t nExpiration The alert-...
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2 answers
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Why aren't more empty blocks mined?

So currently only a tiny amount of empty blocks are mined A total of 71 empty blocks were mined in the first five months of 2020, accounting for 0.3% of the total blocks produced — less than half of ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Could bitcoin employ a continuously varying difficulty adjustment algorithm? [duplicate]

Instead of adjusting the difficulty every 2016 blocks, could the difficulty of every block be individually set based on the previous 2016 blocks? This would avoid discontinuities in difficulty, but ...
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3 votes
2 answers
724 views

Is it common for mining effort to be lost?

If many parties are mining to try to establish a block, and one succeeds, does that mean the efforts of the other miners (whose blocks have at least some common transactions) are lost; the time and ...
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8 votes
1 answer
835 views

How would faster blocks cause mining centralization?

I've heard that faster blocks would cause mining to become more centralized. How do these things fit together?
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1 answer
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How Is The Genesis Block statically encoded into bitcoin client software?

What does 'statically encoded' even mean?
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1 vote
1 answer
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Do block rewards appear immediately in the miner's wallet?

This question is about how Bitcoin rewards would appear in a miner's wallet. Let's assume that two miners have solved the next block hash, and broadcast their block to the network simultaneously... ...
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1 answer
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How many transactions fit into a single block?

there is a limited number of transactions that fit into a block if the network requires more throughput (more bitcoin is being sent), that means more blocks will be solved in a shorter time interval ...
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2 answers
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Curiosity, Minimal transaction accepted as valid? (zero input/ zero output)

$ bitcoin-cli decoderawtransaction 00000000000000000000 { "txid": "f702453dd03b0f055e5437d76128141803984fb10acb85fc3b2184fae2f3fa78", "hash": "...
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0 votes
0 answers
29 views

How do bitcoin miners collect coin?

I was wondering how miners claim the reward? They find the nonce and then do they send that value to a Bitcoin server endpoint where it's validated? I'm not trying to reinvent the wheel but I don't ...
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3 votes
1 answer
510 views

Using PRNG to get better mining results

When miners have a block to mine, this is comparable to finding an effectively (impossible to guess) random number in a set from 0 to n. From what I once read, since the number is random, it makes no ...
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2 answers
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Understanding Bitcoin Validator Node Decentralization

I am hoping to better understand the difference between miner nodes and validator nodes and the decentralization risks (if any) posed by one party controlling X% of all validator nodes. I have been ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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How to calculate the version (eg. in Python)?

I'm working through this medium post that describes all header fields of a block. The explanation of the version field is a little unclear for me. For starters I'm trying to consider version = 1, as ...
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create coinbase transaction step-by-step

I installed Bitcoin core, created a wallet and a receiving address, and uses the RPC command getblocktemplate to get coinbaseaux and coinbasevalue, now what ? how do i create coinbase transaction ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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When do miners add a new block to blockchain?

I'm a bit new to blockchain and I am trying to understand. As I understand when a new transaction happens it's added to a mining pool and miners prioritize these transactions (for example by amount of ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
38 views

Why is it necessary to solve the SHA-256 issue to get a bitcoin?

I understand that for a new bitcoin to be born it is necessary to solve a SHA-256 problem, that is, to make a machine effort for this (a real race). Whoever makes this effort first takes the bitcoin, ...
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0 answers
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Is there a detailed documentation on RPC API bitcoin developer documentation

developer guide on https://developer.bitcoin.org/reference/rpc is not very detailed on mining section. Where can I find a detailed documentation with examples
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1 answer
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do miner hashrates vary during block production?

When a block is mined, the remaining mempool txs can be mined into a new block. Is there a difference in blocktime between accepting all streaming mempool txs into the mining block and sticking with ...
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1 answer
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How resolving nonce validates transactions?

I'm going to explain a bit more about my question, by talking first about what I understand about blockchain and transaction in a decentralized network. Correct me if I'm wrong somewhere. In a ...
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0 votes
1 answer
41 views

What should the miner do if he succeed?

I know that the miner after success he spreads to the network the message that is the concatenation of: Version, Previous Block, Merkle Root, Time, Bits, and Nonce. But how do the validators know his ...
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0 votes
1 answer
45 views

When exactly do I need to know the list of transactions during the mining process?

Is it necessary for the miner to know the transactions from the beginning of mining process? Or he won't need these information until he succeed in the mining and find the nonce that its output starts ...
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0 votes
0 answers
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How is SPV feasible without the entire Merkle Tree? [duplicate]

One of the primary arguments in favor of using Merkle Trees as the mechanism of encoding transactions is the value it provides in Partial Verifications or Simplified Payment Verification. The argument ...
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4 votes
1 answer
97 views

Is there a way to know how good a miner is choosing its transanctions to be mined from a fee maximization point of view?

Well, this is the way I've tried: When a mined block arrives to my node, I compare it against a transaction selection algorithm using my mempool. (I know my mempool it's different than the miner's one,...
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0 votes
2 answers
77 views

Is MEV possible on bitcoin?

Miner Extractable Value (MEV) is a big topic in the life of Ethereum users, and it creates an additional revenue source for the miners. Is MEV possible on the Bitcoin blockchain as well? And if yes/no,...
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0 votes
2 answers
81 views

What is the actual working implementation code used in double hashing a block header in c++?

I need to successfully generate a hash value based on what i feel so far has been described as a hexadecimal filtered sha256 implementation... or something like that. I've been here , here , here, ...
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0 votes
1 answer
37 views

blockchain nodes that dont get the new block

i read somewhere that after 40 second of creating a new block in the blockchain there's still 5% of the nodes that does not have the block, what happens to them if they were offline or down at that ...
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0 votes
0 answers
39 views

Number of miners and security

Where would one look for thoughtful estimates of the number of miners necessary to provide a reasonable level of security, for various definitions of "reasonable"?
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1 vote
1 answer
595 views

If a lot of miners start at nonce 0, how are there no ties?

I understand what happens with ties (in the long term, the longest chain wins), however, if a majority of miners start with a nonce of zero, does it just matter who has the fastest hardware, or is ...
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1 vote
6 answers
171 views

Where does compensation to miners come from?

I am still learning so my terminologies might not be entirely accurate. But I understand that in the traditional model, if person A pays person B $10, then the banks subtract $10 from person A's ...
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0 votes
0 answers
17 views

Use Hash rate for usfull things [duplicate]

You hear often that Bitcoin is using so much power/energy. It is explained to me that all the nodes in the network compete to mine the next bitcoin block by resolving calculations. Would it be a idea ...
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3 votes
1 answer
152 views

Understanding POW and transactions

If I understand correctly, when calculating a proof of work, the entire header is being used in a sha256 function. Now, whenever a new transaction is added to a pre-mined block, the header completely ...
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2 answers
73 views

How do i create/implement a midstate function (One that can accurately calculate the midstate of already mined blocks)

I'm creating an AI controlled bitcoin miner but I'm having trouble manually & locally creating a midstate function to be used for optimizing the mining process. Basically I've created independent ...
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1 vote
1 answer
52 views

Miner attack lightning network

Can miners attack lightning network making it unusable with the hope that the transaction are forced to be processed on-chain, and they earn more transaction fee?
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0 votes
0 answers
31 views

Bitcoin mining for the regular person? [duplicate]

Is it feasible for a regular person to mine crypto like Bitcoin with just a couple of machines? Or is the wear and tear to those machines coupled with the electricity costs just too much to make it a ...
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0 answers
41 views

Start mining without the need to downlod the 360gb blockchain

I am new to bitcoin mining but at least i understand the mathematics behind - the sha256 and finding nonce, i am a junior back-end developer. recently i have being interested in bitcoin mining, as way ...
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0 votes
0 answers
155 views

can i diy an asic miner?

Iam interested in mining bitcoin so Iam wondering if I can get a pcb for hashing and bring asic chip that algorithms are sha-256 and stick them together with some other electronics and have a control ...
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0 votes
3 answers
120 views

Why miners looking for zeros?

I am trying to understand how miners work. Is it true that miners are looking for a number of zeros because if they needed to find the complete hash they will be able to see the content of the ...
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0 votes
1 answer
42 views

What function to use to model probabilistic bitcoin mining?

I would like to calculate profitability of various mining strategies. For that, i need to simulate many random mining intervals, that reflect probabilistic distribution of real block mining. What ...
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4 votes
1 answer
195 views

How bitcoin miners choose timestamp in block header when mining?

I did a statistic about the difference between the first announcement time in the network and the timestamp in block header for blocks within 2020. Surprisingly, most (93%) differences are less than ...
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0 votes
2 answers
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Bitcoin could work in principle with pen and paper and carrier pigeons. Could it?

Bitcoin could work in principle with pen and paper and carrier pigeons bringing the result of computations-by-hand back and forth to a public square: the ledger would work, but its intended use case ...
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0 votes
0 answers
28 views

Mining logistics/algorithm beginner numerical example?

I'm learning about the bitcoin mining process. I'm a learn-by-example type, so I'm wondering if anyone has come across the following: A numerical example of the bitcoin mining process. How to get the &...
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0 votes
1 answer
247 views

What is the correct way to calculate timestamp for a Block(125552)?

I am just learning mining process. Today I learned that we have to find nonce for given block header. And for block header we need timestamp in UTC I took the timestamp data from below link of 125552 ...
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2 votes
1 answer
1k views

If two miners come up with two valid nonces, how does consensus take place?

I am trying to understand how the consensus mechanism works. My understanding is that multiple nonces can satisfy the target hash requirement. What I'm trying to understand now is: if two miners come ...
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0 votes
3 answers
95 views

How much time do miners spend validation?

Before mining, miners have to validate previous block and transactions which exist in mempool. Then, they pick up some validated transactions from pool and start mining on top of validated block using ...
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