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Questions tagged [mining-theory]

This tag should be used for questions about the function, the reason for, and the underlying concepts of mining.

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59 views

How can double-spending occur?

I'm new to Bitcoin and trying to understand how the double-spending problem can occur and implicitly, the need for "mining". Let's say Bitcoin worked the following way: In the network, one ...
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2answers
158 views

Do nodes or miners have ids

Do bitcoin nodes or miners have ids that can be used to identify them. Like how do we know if it is the same miner that has added several blocks consecutively? Or how can I identify a node uniquely?
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8 views

Custom hardware mining on a block header

I am looking for a hardware miner that would allow me to send it a block header and it would loop through the nonce performing hashing and return either a success with the nonce number or fail (once ...
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10 views

Is the block header the data that gets hashed or is it the info of the transactions that get hashed? [duplicate]

I just need to know what is the data that gets hashed. Also if the nonce is put from the beginning or if it's only out if it doesn't meet the requirements of the target. Thanks.
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16 views

Help regrading validating a raw Hex Block on desktop?

Is there a desktop C++/Python library to take a raw hex bitcoin block as input and then break it down to various parameters and print it. Moreover it should be able to validate the structure of a ...
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1answer
39 views

Inactive nodes, validation & 51%; full & partial nodes; validation by miners vs wallets

Questions Suppose a node doesn't have internet connection then it would not receive the broadcast of other nodes then does the blockchain propagates without the validation of that node ( that is, is ...
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1answer
83 views

Some doubts regarding the structure of the Coinbase Transaction?

I was trying to understand the structure of coinbase transaction. I tried a few sources but I still have a few doubts regarding the structure with exactly 1 output. Here is what i know and the doubts ...
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1answer
42 views

What parts of a block, other than the nonce, can a miner vary

What are the list of all the variables whose values that the miner can cycle or modify to get a valid hash for this block (with very high probability) ? The only one I am aware of is: Nonce - 4 Bytes....
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1answer
46 views

How to call `getblocktemplate` without running a full node?

I was trying to get into bitcoin mining but I could not find any useful information on calling getblocktemplate without downloading the entire blockchain. Is there a way to get blocks for mining ...
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1answer
82 views

Some questions about specifics on bitcoin mining

Most people mine bitcoin by launching a software on their PC or buying a special miner, both of which abstract out the nitty-gritty of how the mining process work. I am curious however about some ...
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4answers
2k views

Would Bitcoin still work without a target difficulty?

Suppose that Bitcoin nodes had no target difficulty at all, and instead just accepted the block with the largest PoW every 10 minutes. Ignoring the increased bandwidth (since nodes would be ...
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1answer
66 views

How a real mining code treats difficulty?

I have come up recently with "how to mine bitcoin using python" or "how to mine bitcoin using golang" and as I have been observing all these source code, not only I'm confused but ...
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3answers
243 views

Could the threat of centralization be realized if a sufficiently large entity acquired enough Bitcoin?

This is primarily a hypothetical, but not an impossible one. If a sufficiently large entity such as a massive company with a lot of cash or the U.S. Federal Reserve were to acquire more than half of ...
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2answers
81 views

Why should a miner include transactions when creating a new block?

As I understand it, if I'm a miner, and I have 5 transactions in my queue, I then would use the previous blocks hash and my list of transactions to attempt to create a new block. To do this, I must ...
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0answers
27 views

Can dishonest miners spam fake blocks? [duplicate]

How, if at all, does bitcoin disincentivize spam blocks by adversarial/dishonest miners? As I understand it, blocks are propagated throughout the network using a gossip protocol. If that's true, I ...
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1answer
80 views

What is the meaning of Bitcoin terms like `Tx`, `Block-Header` and `Target`

Hello can you please explain what "TXes" are and What "Block Headers & Targets" and "Headers Below Target" mean. Thank you very mcuch.
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3answers
2k views

What (if anything) in the bitcoin protocol prevents bias against certain accounts?

The bitcoin protocol allows miners to choose which transactions to include when they create a block. They can't include any inauthentic transactions, but to allow for an open market of transaction ...
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1answer
54 views

Where is there a graph of total miner revenue (BTC) per unit time (e.g. day)?

Basically I'm looking for this graph, but denominated in BTC https://www.blockchain.com/charts/miners-revenue or this graph plus the block reward https://www.blockchain.com/charts/transaction-fees I'...
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2answers
99 views

How often does the "little man" win [mining]

I have read that long term we expect that the percentage of blocks mined to be forever converging to the percentage of hashpower possessed by the miner. This means if a particular miner has 20% of the ...
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0answers
55 views

Bitcoin botnets are not a problem. What is stopping ASIC resistant bitcoin now? [duplicate]

Many have suggested solutions to the botnet problem. Including being able to see your cpu rate; genuine miners to see their incomes dropping , etc. If we tried, there are easily solutions we can find ...
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3answers
121 views

Why there are so many miners, if only one will be rewarded?

Why do we need so many miners, if we anyways only can add one block every 10 minutes? I mean if the current block height is x and we now need the block of height x+1 only one miner will be rewarded ...
4
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1answer
654 views

Why can the block production rate be as low as two per hour?

Why is it taking so long to mine a single block. Like last hour only 2 blocks have been mined. Currently been 45 min since the last block was mined. According to blockchair Hour Blocks 5 ***** ...
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1answer
91 views

How Do I unlock a Bitcoin Blockchain with my Proof Of Work? [duplicate]

Can anyone help with some good explanations on next steps for Bitcoin mining. Hypothetically let's say I create an algorithm that successfully guesses the code to unlock a Bitcoin blockchain gives me ...
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1answer
106 views

Are all "hosted mining" services necessarily scams?

In 2014 or something, I paid a smaller sum of money to some company called "Cloudhashing" or something, which claimed that I was renting part of their Bitcoin mining pool and all I had to do ...
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3answers
177 views

Why do we need miners

I know everyone says that we need mining to solve the double spending issue, but why? OK I am Alice and I want to send Bob some money, but double spend that money. This is the part where you say ...
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1answer
71 views

What happens if a miner deliberately ignores a transaction, and "wins"?

Suppose a miner decides to solve the nonce for a particular block, where the miner deliberately excluded a particular transaction from this block. The miner "wins", i.e. they found the nonce ...
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0answers
24 views

What exactly determines how long it takes a given miner to mine 1 btc block? (not talking about hashrate) [duplicate]

So given the number of miners out there working on doing the same thing and that 1 block is mined every 10 minutes, it would appear at face value that only those with the highest hashrates would ever ...
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0answers
33 views

Fee-gathering advantages for geo-optimised miners

As the fee-in-reward percentage grows relative to subidy, will profitability increasingly be proportional to the number of listening nodes a miner has access to? While Bitcoin Core randomises ...
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1answer
43 views

Is it possible that two miners mine blocks with different headers because they include different transactions

Ok, it's a yes or no question: miners can include different transactions in a block, so does that mean that they search for different nonces
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0answers
19 views

Question about bitcoin future [duplicate]

I've a question in mind: As we all know, bitcoin database hosting is a highly resource consuming operation cause of the way block chain works. For now bitcoin is being hosted and served through mining ...
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1answer
64 views

Is my Bitcoin address valid for mining?

I am looking at the specific block at height 680175. When comparing the address which received the block reward # bitcoin-cli validateaddress 1KFHE7w8BhaENAswwryaoccDb6qcT6DbYY { "isvalid":...
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1answer
377 views

Why are there more than two transaction outputs in a coinbase transaction?

In a coinbase transaction there are always more than two transaction outputs. The first transaction output contains the reward. The second contains the witness reserved value. But why are there other ...
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0answers
27 views

I need help figuring out what happened with my BFGminer overnight

I'm a newbie to crypto and was experimenting with usb erupters because I was getting into ETH mining with my rig and wanted to test it on something less risky. I ran ck pool for my USB erupter just to ...
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1answer
33 views

How is the witness reserved value set in a coinbase transaction?

In a coinbase transaction the second transaction output seems always to be a 32-byte witness reserved value. Is there any constraint on this value?
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1answer
36 views

How to set the sequence number in a coinbase transaction?

The sequence number seems to be used for locking a transaction in mempool. However, the coinbase transaction is not part of the mempool and thus the sequence number does not make sense. Is it just an &...
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2answers
68 views

How Bitcoin restricts the mining time?

How Bitcoin restricts the mining time? We know cryptocurrency systems restrict the mining time of a block to a certain limit for security reasons. For example, mining time for Bitcoin is ~10 minutes. ...
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1answer
106 views

How to install the latest bfgminer binaries directly from terminal without 'aptitude' on a raspberry pi 4 8gb running raspbian?

months ago I found an entry on StackExchange or somewhere else on how to install the latest (!) bfgminer binaries directly from terminal. I can not find the stackexchange post, no matter how deep I ...
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1answer
42 views

Why does decoded block data not match coinbase transaction input?

I am looking at the specific block at height 680175. Via bitcoin-cli getblock 00000000000000000004dbd66fa71fdcd62658bf8c8e2e153521257ad5858c71 0 I obtained the serialized, hex-encoded block data. ...
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2answers
617 views

Why does the mined block differ so much from the block template?

I am looking at the specific block at height 680175. At the time when the block was not mined yet, I received the block template via bitcoin-cli getblocktemplate '{"rules": ["segwit&...
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1answer
35 views

Educational sample of minimal working mining code

I would like if someone could point me to a minimal program source code that does solo minig on a CPU. (Can assume a running bitcoind/full node) Something that in theory (obviously not in practice) ...
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1answer
51 views

Why does mining / validation of new blocks have to be complicated / time consuming? [duplicate]

Why does mining / validation of new blocks have to be complicated / time consuming ? Why it can't be as simple as just find a hash for a text? Is it just to control / limit the amount of new crypto ...
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0answers
20 views

About mining difficulty [duplicate]

I hope you’re all doing well during this COVID-19 period. I was wondering how you can calculate the difficulty rate of a coin (Mining purposes)?
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0answers
37 views

Looking for feedback on (Browser-based) Blockchain Simulator

I have created a Blockchain 'simulator' in JavaScript, for the purpose of helping explain how the technology works. It is complementary to a website I have set up years ago, where I attempt to explain ...
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0answers
23 views

how to identify as soon as possible that a new block was mined

From the miner perspective: You have a worker, fetching data from a full-node with getblocktemplate to create a candidate block and push it to the miners, to effective mine it. As soon as your miner ...
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0answers
38 views

How mining works for a new born cryptocurrency [duplicate]

What I have learnt that mining is breaking a block which contains transactions using hashing algorithm (Sorry if this is wrong please do correct me). Now my question is how mining will work for a new ...
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0answers
62 views

Stratum: How many shares should I submit per job?

I'm implementing a bitcoin CPU miner just for fun in python. I've been reading a lot about bitcoin and the protocol pools use for communication and coordinating workers but there is a key concept I ...
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1answer
198 views

Are Bitcoin's blocks signed by the miner?

To my understanding, at no point in the Bitcoin Whitepaper does it say that blocks are signed by the miner. However, one could see the advantage of having blocks signed. Thus I wonder if in the ...
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0answers
34 views

basics of cryptocurrency [duplicate]

I recently became interested in cryptocurrency and its mining process but there are a few things I don't understand very well and I am still trying to learn the basics more before getting into trading ...
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9answers
2k views

How does a blockchain relying on PoW verify that a hash is computed using an algorithm and not made up by a human?

How does a blockchain verify that the hash provided (the one with the leading zeros that is supposed to be unique, computed using lots of processing power) is indeed unique and that it wasn't just a ...
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0answers
28 views

Is the block header in stratum protocol double hashed?

I'm trying to understand how the block header is done when mining in a stratum pool. Should the block header be hashed once or double hashed ? the block header consists of the version, previous hash, ...

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