Questions tagged [mining-theory]

This tag should be used for questions about the function, the reason for, and the underlying concepts of mining.

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Which block header fields are miners able to change in an effort to avoid having to recalculate the Merkle Root?

In addition to the nonce and the Merkle Root, there are 4 other fields in the header - version, previous header hash, time and nbits. Assuming a miner does not want to change the merkle root because ...
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1answer
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How can size of a block be significantly small? [duplicate]

As we all know bitcoin block size should be sth about 1MiB. (Some blocks about 2MB). And this is because miners put all transactions to the block every 10 minutes. So what happens technically that ...
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Are miner builder/sellers profitability calculations true?

regarding to this question here How many hash calculation is needed to reach one BTC? , it takes about 1387 years with 1 TH/s power rate to reach 1 BTC. So if someone has a machine with 53TH/s power ...
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42 views

How many hash calculation is needed to reach one BTC?

What I am asking for is a formula and it's source of numbers to put in there and calculate how many hashes must be calculated to get 1 bitcoin today(or every other day in future)? For example, if I ...
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1answer
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Why all miners produce the same blocks

My understanding is that all miners are feeded with transactions published by full node servers, but I didn't understand why they end up with exactly the same transactions in their created blocks ? ...
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Why is the winner of Pow different everytime?

I just read about how miners have to change the nonce bit in order to find an hash below a certain result. Granted each miner process it the same way, incrementally, adding 1 and hashing, adding one ...
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17 views

How does proof of work works? [duplicate]

I am wondering how POW calculation is working ? Is it basicly a hash brute force ? So it is based on probability and luck for miners ? Thanks
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1answer
30 views

Mining operation calculation

My goal is to understand bitcoin. I have read what happens during a transaction and have a question about it: When a transaction happen, the miners compute a value called "prof of work". This value ...
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1answer
39 views

How can i enable mining

My goal is to understand bitcoin. I do not want to earn money with mining. I have a server without GPU (intel i5 with 4 cores) Here is what i've done: I have downloaded, maked and installed bitcoin ...
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1answer
19 views

A question about transaction broadcasting and block creation

Let's say we have transaction X and transaction Y. The timestamp of X is chronologically earlier than that of Y. X's spender broadcasts X to the network and the same goes for Y's spender. Let's say ...
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1answer
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using rpccookiefile instead of username and password for antminers

I mine using username and password at the moment but as bitcoin core is changing over to rpccookiefile. My question is, if i use rpccookiefile how do i point my antminers to my local bitcoind 'pool' ...
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1answer
31 views

Miners conceding forks

When bitcoin forks, does anyone know how many blocks ahead one chain gets before the miners on the shorter chain concede? I am doing a research project on modeling Bitcoin, and I am wondering how ...
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55 views

Mining Probability

Assuming two miners have a (1/x) chance of finding a block over some time period, is the probability of both miners finding a block within that period simply (1/x^2)? More generally, would n miners ...
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1answer
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Timer-based consensus algorithm in blockchain

Assume that there is an algorithm that ensures: 1- That a full node chooses an honest random wait time. 2- That the same node has waited the specified amount of time before proceeding to mine a block. ...
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1answer
58 views

How has the Bitcoin average block size recently risen above 3 MB?

I was aware that the block size could rise above the 1 MB cap due to SegWit. However, my understanding was that the block size would still be limited under SegWit. My understanding of SegWit is that ...
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1answer
26 views

When a new block is propagated, nodes validate from genesis block to propagated block?

For example, I have a nth block and when n + 1 th block is propagated, i have to compare with n+1 block's previous hash and nth block's hash for validation. It is pretty trivial. But do i have to ...
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1answer
48 views

Is there any guarantee that mining will be profitable?

I'm not a money person. I deal with it only out of necessity. So say I have $1000.00 worth of Bitcoin and decide to enter the world of "mining". What's the physical process on my end and is there any ...
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Please guide what should i do

Am new in bitcoin world and didn't started it yet... A man from USA saying to create blockchain wallet n top up then share ur email n wallet address not login not password to connect my wallet to a s9 ...
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2answers
50 views

What would be the consequence of a constant network difficulty?

Say the difficulty of the bitcoin network was not variable. Then regardless of the network hash-rate, the mining puzzle will be the same. What would that mean in terms of the security and economics of ...
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Will Bitcoin mining stop?

According to this site there are 3,260,162.5 bitcoins left to be mined. Do you know if eventually Bitcoin mining will stop after that? If yes which other cryptocurrency can be mined for ever? Thank ...
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Stochastically, fork can influence on block generation time?

I have known that we can calculate a network hashrate using ellipse time during 1 round(2016 blocks for adjusting difficulty) Stochastically, we can calculate a contribution of all miner for one ...
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2answers
39 views

Bitcoin transactions validation process

I have a general understanding of building blocks. But am hoping someone can fill in the details/gaps. Also, can you correct if something is not right? Thanks. Scenario: Bitcoin transactions are ...
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1answer
50 views

What is a relationship with total hash rate(hash power) and average block generation time?

This chart - hash rate means total hash rate of All minor? I think the most significant factor for difficulty and block generation time is the hash rate of the biggest mining pool not total hash rate ...
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1answer
38 views

Is Block Finalization a valid development to remove the threat of 51% attacks?

https://www.reddit.com/r/btc/comments/bq8cqo/btctop_currently_has_51_hashing_power/eo2p4md?utm_source=share&utm_medium=web2x A recent comment from a Reddit user in response to BTC.top acquiring ...
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1answer
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What is stopping pool managers to fake a miner?

What if a pool manager introduces a miner that is not there and then uses the reward distribution?
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51% attack - apparently very easy? refering to CZ's “rollback btc chain” - How to make sure such corruptible scenario can never happen so easily?

I was shocked to see binance CZ comment to literally "roll back" the bitcoin chain by just "calling" in some favors from "friendly" Asian miners . This ONE person could effectively do it??? I mean ...
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1answer
40 views

Does the pool miners in mining pool receive the same block in case of a fork?

For example there are 2 mining pools A and B and they mined a block in same time. Then, A mining pool got a block that A mining pool mined? Or nodes in mining pool receive independently so they ...
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1answer
45 views

How do miners construct and submit blocks [duplicate]

1) Assume there are 20 nodes in network and all are receiving all transactions. Afterr 10 min they all pick transactions from their transaction pool and start creating a block. Now, will all nodes use ...
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31 views

Orphaned block probability ratio

The probability of orphaned blocks should also take into consideration the proportion of the total mining hash power that the miner has. If M_i and M_j are 2 miners with p_i= 2* p_j (proportion of ...
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1answer
84 views

How does the 51 percent or 2/3 majority voting rule work?

For a block to be added to the chain, it needs vote from majority of miners, is that correct? If yes, does that mean a single block gets worked upon by all of the miners?
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Is the time taken for the verification of a transcation not much relevant?

By verification I do not mean the puzzle solving/hash calculating part but the part involving searching all of the blocks to check if the transaction is valid or not? For example if A transferred ...
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874 views

What is preventing me from simply constructing a hash that's lower than the current target?

I just started learning about Bitcoin, and something I can figure out is why miners have to use a random process (hashing a nonce) to get lower than the target. For example, if the target is ...
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1answer
44 views

Bitcoin fork resolution - Fork losers download previous blocks 'til common block?

When resolving a naturally occurring fork in Bitcoin, do the miners who were working on the orphaned fork download previous blocks from the miner who won the block reward that resolved the fork until ...
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Why dont' nodes change the block version number when the nonce overflows?

After computing 4 billion nonces, the miner is supposed to update the merkle root. Why don't they choose a new nonce and assign it to the block version number and begin again? It would save time and ...
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1answer
27 views

Would it be possible to store hashes generated in a file, then brush through them to find out if they are under the target?

I have been wondering if it would be possible to generate hashes, store them in a file, then use them as hashes when mining. When you would mine, you would not generate the hashes, but instead, just ...
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Can the fees in a coinbase be used to launder Bitcoins?

Generally Bitcoins coming from a coinbase are considered clean as they are newly generated. However while answering this question I realized that mining pools could offer to launder Bitcoins in the ...
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Locating Bitcoin mining activity

There is any systematic way to locate Bitcoin mining activity (either block creation or node activity). I stumble upon with Bitnodes code which implements a recursive search using some nodes as "seed",...
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1answer
30 views

If miners are creating their own mining algorithms or using something standard

From this: the arrival of a new block has special significance for a mining node. The competition among miners effectively ends with the propagation of a new block that acts as an announcement of a ...
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1answer
70 views

Why every node needs to validate a transaction in Bitcoin

I am just understanding the Bitcoin network, and now understand that every block and every transaction is propagated to every node in the Bitcoin network (not sure yet the difference between full vs. ...
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1answer
45 views

If all Proof of … systems use mining

I understand how Proof of Work (PoW) works now, and am beginning to look at different Proof of ... systems like these: Proof of Stake Proof of Ownership Proof of Existence Proof of Space From what I ...
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1answer
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Can the Bitcoin network boycott a misbehaving miner?

If a miner misbehaves, can other miners “boycott” him/her by refusing to build on top of his/her blocks in the future? Will such a “boycott” keep the miners from behaving badly?
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Is it possible to generate(mine) a block with specific transaction via bitcoin-cli on regtest?

I want to generate a block with specific transaction via bitcoin-cli on regtest. The "generate" command does not have the option. It collects transactions in mempool by the default rule. I guess I ...
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1answer
47 views

How can block time and block size be fixed when transaction volume is constantly increasing?

As I understand it the network rejects blocks over 1MB, and block hash difficulty is set after each block is created as to keep the block time close to 10min. But if people are constantly joining ...
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1answer
56 views

what happens if a miner include a transaction already exists in another block?

Suppose that I have a Transaction A. (txA) I send my txA to bitcoin network and full node validate it and put in Mempool and starts to broadcasting it. A Miner A connect to a fullnode to create a ...
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What is entropy mean in this context?

"The Bitcoin nonce forms part of the block header, which is used by miners to provide entropy as part of the Proof of Work process, to try and find a hash meeting the difficulty requirement." Quote ...
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1answer
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How has the hash rate for bitcoin continued to increase despite price drops and miners dropping out?

Despite price dropping in 2018, the hash rate for bitcoin tripled from around 15 EH/s to 45 EH/s. Why is this the case? I am aware that the network difficulty adjusts meaning that if miners drop off, ...
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1answer
37 views

What are the steps to overcome a state in which miners couldn't mine blocks?

The difficulty is set according to the total hash rate of the network. Is there a possibility in which miners just can't validate blocks (will not find hash that will satisfy the POW)? I understand ...
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1answer
53 views

Does Merkle Tree root hash changed when miner node not found POW nonce?

In bitcoin PoW process,if miner does not found the nonce, I understand that he must to increase nonce and rehash the entire block header again to mine the new block. so if nonce defined 4byte[between ...
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Can we get a fixed rate of kWH to USD through bitcoin? [closed]

Assuming the energy to bitcoin rate of your choosing, what is the cost of one kiloWatt Hour, in USD?
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Do you start from the LAST NONCE to find the correct HASH to solve Hash Puzzle in Bitcoin Mining?

I'm reading the example of the simple proof of work algorithm from here: https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/mastering-bitcoin/9781491902639/ch08.html#pow_example_outputs In that example, the nonce ...