Questions tagged [mining-theory]

This tag should be used for questions about the function, the reason for, and the underlying concepts of mining.

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What are the units of “difficulty”?

In various places, e.g. here and here, there are plots of the "difficulty" of bitcoin mining over time. What exactly is the interpretation of these numbers - in what units are they measured? My first ...
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1answer
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Doesn't overt AsicBoost reduce the search space for a valid block header hash?

ASICBoost is a new method to mine bitcoins with a 20% speedup, as covered in this article: https://blog.bitmex.com/an-overview-of-the-covert-asicboost-allegation-2/ Now, consider the following ...
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Can D-wave quantum annealing computers mine bitcoin?

I'm not talking about quantum computers here, I'm talking about quantum annealing computers, which is quite different. According to Wikipedia, quantum annealing "is a metaheuristic for finding the ...
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Why can't Grover's algorithm be used for bitcoin mining?

Similar questions have been asked before: Can quantum computing improve Bitcoin mining? Can a Qubit Miner ASIC device be created and what would its impact be on the mining community? However, none ...
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Incentive for miners to keep mining once reward get very low [duplicate]

Currently each winning miner receive 12.5 bitcoin or 12.5*10 000 dollar per successfully mined block and the amount of bitcoin receive is divided by 2 approximately each 4 years. The incentive to ...
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Mining pools communicating outside of network

Does anyone know of any papers / evidence of bitcoin mining pools communicating outside of the bitcoin network for financial gain? It seems plausible in practice, but I am not sure if that has ...
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3answers
39k views

How does proof-of-stake “mining” work?

I know and understand the concept of proof-of-stake. Instead of requiring users to do a certain amount of power-intensive hashing "work", it requires you to own a certain stake of the currency in ...
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1answer
37 views

A question about transaction broadcasting and block creation

Let's say we have transaction X and transaction Y. The timestamp of X is chronologically earlier than that of Y. X's spender broadcasts X to the network and the same goes for Y's spender. Let's say ...
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1answer
63 views

using rpccookiefile instead of username and password for antminers

I mine using username and password at the moment but as bitcoin core is changing over to rpccookiefile. My question is, if i use rpccookiefile how do i point my antminers to my local bitcoind 'pool' ...
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Why stratum's data previous hash has that specific byte ordering?

I am doing some tests to understand the stratum protocol. If I connect to a stratum pool (slush in this case), and check the data I receive after mining.authorize, I get the following previous hash: ...
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1answer
193 views

Can Undercutting attacks be Mitigated?

An Undercutting attack as described in this paper, is a mining strategy which involves producing new blocks not on the longest known chain, but instead 'undercutting' the longest chain by building a ...
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Is it possible to mine bitcoins faster on CPUs with this strategy?

This guy on bitcointalk.org suggested a potentially faster method for mining bitcoins using CPUs: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=265759.0 To quote from the author: "Rather than ...
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A different way to create coinbase transaction

AFAIK when a miner succeeds in creating a block, he puts a special transaction (coinbase) in it which spends no input and sends a fixed amount of BTC to an address he can arbitrarily specify. Instead ...
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If I were executing a 51% attack, would I be broadcasting my state of the network to nodes?

In the scenario where an entity has control of greater than 51% of the hash power and wishes to build a longer chain where they double-spend previously confirmed transactions, do they broadcast the ...
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1answer
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Calculate the hash of mined block using stratum parameters (coinb1, coinb2, xtranonce1…)?

Miners get several parameters from the stratum pool: coinb1, coinb2, xtranonce1, xtranonce2... according to here. I wonder if it is possible to reproduce the hash of one already mined block, but ...
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1answer
364 views

Bitcoin migrating to a ASIC resistant mining algorithm like RandomX used on Monero

What would need to happen for Bitcoin to fork to a ASIC resistant mining algorithm like RandomX used by Monero for CPU mining only?
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What is more effective than ASIC mining?

Considering that mining progressed from CPU, to GPU, to FPGA, and now ASIC mining... have we finally hit the end of the road for technological advancement? What future optimizations can occur after ...
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What prevents a miner to be ignored by the other participants?

What prevents that certain miners and the blocks they can contribute to the chain are not ignored? What do the other participants in the network gain from accepting their answers to the puzzle?
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40 views

What is the SPV Mining Exploit?

Can anyone explain this simply? I am not finding enough explanation exactly on this type of attack. If possible, add some additional reading to your answer so that I can understand more.
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Will this bitcoin mining strategy work?

I'm new to bitcoin, and my knowledge of bitcoin is quite garbled and messy (I have only a vague understanding of Satoshi's original white paper for bitcoin......) I've been reading up on bitcoin ...
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2answers
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Is it possible to have a modified Proof of Work that does not require as much energy to secure the blockchain?

As more ASICs hash away for acceptable difficulty, the difficulty keeps rising over time. Greater difficulty means to me that more electricity is used to secure the Bitcoin blockchain. Are there ...
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1answer
47 views

When does a miner get the reward?

Let's suppose that a miner mines a block and adds it to the blockchain. When it gets the reward ? I suspect that first of all the other nodes have to verify that its proof of work is correct and it's ...
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70 views

Bitcoin blockchain minner

Q. Is it correct to state that a Bitcoin miner has only two jobs: validating transactions creating a block to add into the blockchain
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1answer
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Timer-based consensus algorithm in blockchain

Assume that there is an algorithm that ensures: 1- That a full node chooses an honest random wait time. 2- That the same node has waited the specified amount of time before proceeding to mine a block. ...
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Why the timestamp component of the block header?

What is the reason for the timestamp field in the block header? Surely the nonce should be the only property that changes? Should the nonce reset to 0 everytime the timestamp changes?
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Is it possible to generate(mine) a block with specific transaction via bitcoin-cli on regtest?

I want to generate a block with specific transaction via bitcoin-cli on regtest. The "generate" command does not have the option. It collects transactions in mempool by the default rule. I guess I ...
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1answer
255 views

Is there only one method? for miner and pool communication?

I tried doing some sort of filtering on XMRig using wireshark on an ETN pool and I found that XMRig was using login method of JSON-RPC 2.0, my question is does all miners use this method? By "all" I ...
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What happens when a node cannot find the base Block of a newly received Block

This particular question has been bugging my mind for sometime now. Suppose there an adversary miner who mines a Block with one of his transactions. The miner would only send the updated Block to a ...
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How Bitcoin mining contributes to confirmations?

Based on my knowledge I know (maybe wrong) when a miner is doing hash, he is inputting any arbitrary values, in order to get a value that can be hashed into something with certain preceding zeros. ...
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1answer
86 views

Is mining a fair mechanism in blockchain network?

As we know, propagation of a new block in blockchain network has some delay and many nodes receive the new block later. so if it is that the first one who finds the nonce properly wins the block can ...
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1answer
35 views

Mining process in a blockchain

Let's consider a blockchain. They mining nodes are listening to transactions and every one is building is own block. Due to latency and other issues, every miner is probably building a different block,...
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Can we measure bitcoin's accumulated work in terms of entropy (in bits) directly rather than expected number of hashes?

The Background Bitcoin tracks chain work by counting the (expected) minimum number of hashes it would take to create a chain of the same number of blocks and same difficulty steps[1]. Naturally, ...
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What would the effect of a very long bear market be on the Bitcoin economy?

I don't mean to be a doomsday prophet or spread FUD, but I need to know if Bitcoin (or any PoW coin) investors should be concerned about the following scenario: Assume Bitcoin goes in a very long ...
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1answer
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Who can predict that a benign attacker has 51% hash rate of the system?

In the Bitcoin network, suppose that there is an attacker who has 60% hash-rate (hr) and then other users have 40% hr. Therefore, it is obcioust if other users generate any new block, attacker can ...
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Why does it make sense for mining pools to send empty blocks to miners in Stratum v1?

I am reading the recently released specs of Stratum v1 versus Stratum v2. One of the features is that "it is equally as efficient for pools to send full blocks for miners to begin working on as it is ...
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Bitcoin mining process-the leading zeros before the hash-how is the mining puzzle solved exactly?

Can someone please explain: In Bitcoin proof of work, mining is done to create and validate new blocks. Who becomes the sole block producer is subject to winning a "mining puzzle". As I understand, ...
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Bitcoin mining process

Can someone please explain these fuzzy understanding? I am trying to implement my proper demo application of blockchain, but now I discover that many concepts are not that clear.. 1- how do miners in ...
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what is the most suitable time interval for updating information on a block while mining the block

So, Bitcoin block consists of some static (magic number, version, previous hash...) and dynamic (timestamp, Merkle Root, transaction count and transactions) elements. What I don't understand is if we ...
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1answer
15 views

how the miner start to count the timestamp to insert in the block

I have a doubt, how the miner starts to count the timestamp to insert in the block. An example the timestamp insert inside the genesis block is 1/3/2009, 7:15:05 PM GMT+1. If the genesis block would ...
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what prevents a miner from adding a false transaction to a block and then adding it to the block chain in PoW? [duplicate]

Here is what I understand, the step to PoW are: step 1:Miner select some transactions from its mempool. step 2:Miner tries to create a block and then broadcasts it if successful. step 3:Other ...
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1answer
66 views

Shorter Chains in blockdata

Assuming two blocks are published at exactly the same time, a race for the next block to be added to one of them begins, which eventually one chain will eventually win. My question: will the shorter ...
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2answers
58 views

Who will be the future miners?

We know that the bitcoin for mining a block is going to converge to approximately zero as the number of bitcoins will be almost constant after a certain amount of time. So, mining will no more ...
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19k views

What happens to the bitcoin network when the miners all stop in the future?

What happens to the bitcoin network when the miners all stop, years in the future after all the bitcoins have been mined? How will the network continue to function? Won't bitcoins then be useless? ...
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1answer
49 views

What are the steps to overcome a state in which miners couldn't mine blocks?

The difficulty is set according to the total hash rate of the network. Is there a possibility in which miners just can't validate blocks (will not find hash that will satisfy the POW)? I understand ...
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1answer
54 views

How long does it take to find a UTXO in UTXOs set?

to validate a TX, the miner or full node should first find the UTXO. How long does it take to find a specific UTXO in a list of UTXOs set? Right now, there are around 100 million of UTXOs. Then, how ...
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How can we find the hashrate distribution of different pools? [duplicate]

we can see that different websites propose some graphs in which the hash rate distribution is depicted, like the attached Figure. 1) I want to know that how do these websites approximate this ...
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3answers
96 views

Don't miners control who is allowed to make transactions?

Simple question really, considering theres a very small group of miners controlling the chain ATM. Whats to stop them from being forced by the goverment to disallow certain transactions or just mining ...
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1answer
30 views

How to transfer hash power from one pool to another

Is it possible to transfer hash power from one pool to another? If yes, how?
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How do more leading zeroes make it more difficult to find a block?

A couple of articles describing the process of mining do say that the more miners are in the network, the more 0 numbers are included in the encoded hash of the particular block. I cannot find an ...
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1answer
39 views

Could a malicious attacker subvert the Bitcoin network by failing to create a block?

I know its astronomically improbable, but say a malicious node "wins" the proof of work inherent to the Bitcoin protocol. If a malicious node simply waited indefinitely, or maliciously disconnected ...

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