Questions tagged [mining-theory]

This tag should be used for questions about the function, the reason for, and the underlying concepts of mining.

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Why doesn't the same miner always win?

If the miner with the strongest ability to solve the block wins, why doesn't the same miner win every time? Wouldn't that miner still have the strongest ability to perform the proof of work on the ...
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1answer
38 views

How do miners decide when to give up on a block?

So in my understanding, miners bundle a list of transactions into a block and begin working on it until they can generate a valid proof of work. There are various reasons to group fewer or more ...
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1answer
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Could a miner set a maximium transaction fee rate?

Could a miner set a maximimum transaction fee rate? I mean validate only transactions between x and y satoshis/byte? I know is not clever. Is it possible?
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2answers
257 views

ASIC-Resistant Proof of Work

Bitcoin uses a Proof of Work algorithm that makes it the perfect victim of ASIC mining. As a result, it is not very decentralized (more than 50% of Bitcoin's hash power is concentrated in China and ...
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2answers
514 views

How does the BTC protocol guarantee that a “main” blockchain emerges?

I'm reading up on the bitcoin/blockchain technology. Usually, the part about proof of work and how to create a block is well explained. However, what is never explained is how/why the communication of ...
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1answer
51 views

Does difficulty adjustment apply when you mine in secret?

Imagine you have an enormous amount of hashpower (say a nation state level attack) and you mine in secret. Does the difficulty adjustment apply specifically to your secret chain? Because that would ...
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4answers
402 views

Can miners collude to bypass the penalty based revocation system of the lightning network?

The core lightning security assumption relies on a punishment mechanism called “Justice Transaction”. However, how can you prevent a malicious user from colluding with a miner, and producing a block ...
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41 views

How to setup cgminer.conf for solo mining?

How can I configure an ASIC such as S9 using cgminer.conf, in order to do solo mining? I would appreciate a guidance for creating the config file.
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2answers
83 views

Mining Bitcoin at 1000x Efficiency

Bitcoin secures its network by forcing miners to solve a cryptographic puzzle who's difficulty increases based on the total hashing power of the network. If someone were to develop an algorithm that ...
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1answer
46 views

A question about transaction broadcasting and block creation

Let's say we have transaction X and transaction Y. The timestamp of X is chronologically earlier than that of Y. X's spender broadcasts X to the network and the same goes for Y's spender. Let's say ...
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2answers
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What prevents somebody from “re-mining” an already existing Bitcoin?

This may reveal that I know nothing about math or cryptography. Let's say that a given Bitcoin was "lost" in that it was once mined and assigned/given to a person who had it in their wallet....
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Any source for a visualized SHA-2?

Is there any source that visualizes how SHA-2 works (including internals) with animated video or an interactive web page?
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Did Satoshi Nakamoto (in his blogs or the whitepaper) forecast that mining pools would exist?

Mining pools are common today where users pool their resources together and share profits accordingly. Such pools today can account for significant proportions of a network's hash power and they're ...
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Does bitcoin mining pool hash randomly and separately

When it comes to hashing does each mining entity use total random seed for each of their hashing function or do they have a range like " Im gonna cover from 0 to 500, and you cover from 500 to ...
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1answer
36 views

how to fix mining software make error? bfgminer bitcoin

so i have bfgminer up on a linux machine running fine purring away at 67Mh/s solo mining (geforce gtx460) im attempting to build on a windows 10 machine i have tried msys2 mgwin32 and 64 bit nothing ...
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What is bitcoin mining for dummies [duplicate]

I did some google searches but I can't really understand much about what exactly is being mined. I know people use computers to solve problems for others? But what problems exactly? And who pays them? ...
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Why is 6 the number of confirms that is considered secure?

Why is 6 is the number of confirmations that is considered secure? I haven't found any mathematical explanation or otherwise that explains why it is 6 and not 5 or 7. Is there a historical reason for ...
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1answer
83 views

Bitcoin core v0.20.1 mining, am i doing it right? using “generatetoaddress”

I am using the official bitcoin core client downloaded from bitcoin.org i have googled this question multiple times finding only virus warning files or forums with links to outdated information and i ...
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1answer
405 views

Mining algorithm in vb.net

I wanted to convert the following bitcoin mining python code to VB.net (2012) and I tried to convert it's functionality, but it throws some errors and I'm stuck as I even can't get the resulting value ...
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1answer
37 views

Mining Pool hub support cpu miner?

I have a simple/old CPU (like dual-core/Quad-Core) with unlimited electricity and all the other stuff. I would like to run 10 PCs with CPU mining. It's better to mine solo or the join mining pool hub? ...
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1answer
156 views

Does a low profit margin on mining reduce the integrity of the blocks stored in the transaction history?

As the mining Bitcoin payout decreases from 50 to zero, what incentive is there for miners to continue operating? Is there a need for miners to continue to operate when the payout decreases to zero? ...
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2answers
46 views

Can one mine bitcoin without including transactions and get accepted by network?

The answer was yes few years ago. Does it still apply as per 2020? If so, why I cannot find any blocks with no transactions recently? Is it not easier to mine blocks with no transactions? Also, if it ...
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1answer
24 views

Stealing a correct hash because of an invalid block

Suppose that a miner find the right hashes but involuntarily or by malicious intention then create an invalid block, like trying to double spend a transaction My guess is that the moment this block is ...
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0answers
34 views

What advantages do large-scale miners have?

Do established mining hardware companies (e.g., Bitmain) offer discounts to mining operations that place large orders (e.g., orders for 100s or 1000s of units)? Since this is a competitive business, ...
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1answer
28 views

How many numbers to try to solve the proof-of-work problem

I'm preparing for a lecture on blockchain, where I'm going to briefly explain the proof-of-work mechanism and the hashcash challenge. To illustrate the difficulty, I want to give the maximum amount of ...
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4answers
1k views

Is it possible for an unsolvable block to exist?

Is there a proof that the hashing will always yield a result? Or proof that there exist unsolvable blocks? It's my understanding that even if we hit an unsolvable block that eventually the ...
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4answers
927 views

Does the block reward comes from a bitcoin treasury? If yes, then how is it issued?

The miner adds the relevant block reward to himself (i.e. 12.5 bitcoin as of now) in something called the coinbase transaction. Where do these 12.5 bitcoins come from? Does it comes from bitcoin ...
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Do most small miners join mining pools? Is “pay-per-share” the dominant approach?

Is it correctly understood that most individual/small miners join mining pools? Is "pay-per-share" (or some variations thereof) the most popular mining pool approach, which means that the ...
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1answer
361 views

Is there only one method? for miner and pool communication?

I tried doing some sort of filtering on XMRig using wireshark on an ETN pool and I found that XMRig was using login method of JSON-RPC 2.0, my question is does all miners use this method? By "all" I ...
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2answers
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What happens if two miners mine the next block at the same time?

The process of mining as described in the answer to this question is simultaneously repeated by multiple miners. Is it possible for two miners to find the next block at the same instant? If it is, ...
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1answer
92 views

Who can predict that a benign attacker has 51% hash rate of the system?

In the Bitcoin network, suppose that there is an attacker who has 60% hash-rate (hr) and then other users have 40% hr. Therefore, it is obcioust if other users generate any new block, attacker can ...
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1answer
59 views

How to create bitcoin coin , coinbase transaction?

I know about createrawtransaction '[{"txid":"0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000","vout":0}]' '{"39jbHRLG6Z2KgXLHR3BWgbccZde1Moo15k"...
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1answer
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Shorter Chains in blockdata

Assuming two blocks are published at exactly the same time, a race for the next block to be added to one of them begins, which eventually one chain will eventually win. My question: will the shorter ...
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2answers
703 views

What if same transaction is added in more than one block of different miners?

I know that miners have freedom to choose transactions from memory pool, Let say there are 5 transactions Tx1 Tx2 Tx3 Tx4 and Tx5 in memory pool, There are 3 miners M1 M2 and M3 M1 has created ...
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Can D-wave quantum annealing computers mine bitcoin?

I'm not talking about quantum computers here, I'm talking about quantum annealing computers, which is quite different. According to Wikipedia, quantum annealing "is a metaheuristic for finding the ...
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0answers
19 views

Probability of hash yielding a valid block

I read today in a paper that for BTC every hash has a probability of yielding a valid block and that this is approximated by most of the time. Can someone explain to me how to come up with this ...
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2answers
3k views

How create / generate a coinbase transaction for a new block?

I am coding a miner program with C, and right now I need some info of how create / generate a coinbase transaction to add to the block before submit it to the bitcoin network. Someone can indicate any ...
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1answer
63 views

Lowest numbered Bitcoin hash? [duplicate]

I was thinking about which bitcoin block has the lowest numbered hash. What I mean by a hash as a number is that. For example, the number "1" has a lower hash than "2" in SHA256. ...
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1answer
37 views

Why do other miners check block validity along with proof of work? [duplicate]

I am new to blockchains and bitcoins. So, please pardon the lack of understanding. Assume I am a miner who adds a bogus transaction (say a transfer from my account which has 0 balance to my other ...
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3answers
122 views

Bitcoin transactions validation process

I have a general understanding of building blocks. But am hoping someone can fill in the details/gaps. Also, can you correct if something is not right? Thanks. Scenario: Bitcoin transactions are ...
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1answer
52 views

List of different unknown mining pools

A miner can identify himself when he receive his coinbase transaction, we can view them on website offering block explorer like https://www.blockchain.com/charts/pools Some of these miners are listed ...
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What is the relationship between bitmain-freq, Hashrate and Power Consumption?

I am running a few old miners (T9+) to heat my home and they are too loud and making a loss (which is ok, as I am interested in the heat). Following this suggestions (sticking with the standard ...
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2answers
183 views

How does the mathematical problem get harder for bitcoin mining over time?

How does it become harder for miners to extract bitcoin as time passes (excluding increasing computer capabilities and the competition between miners accordingly)? Is related to the amount of bitcoins ...
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1answer
211 views

using rpccookiefile instead of username and password for antminers

I mine using username and password at the moment but as bitcoin core is changing over to rpccookiefile. My question is, if i use rpccookiefile how do i point my antminers to my local bitcoind 'pool' ...
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51% attack - apparently very easy? refering to CZ's “rollback btc chain” - How to make sure such corruptible scenario can never happen so easily?

I was shocked to see binance CZ comment to literally "roll back" the bitcoin chain by just "calling" in some favors from "friendly" Asian miners . This ONE person could effectively do it??? I mean ...
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2answers
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Can eavesdropping help mining at all?

My understanding is that if a miner uses a particular coinbase address then already this address is offsetting the computation to a whole different set of results… Can someone, mathematically speaking,...
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1answer
42 views

Calculate block hash is different in regtest?

I'm able to calculate the block hash in mainnet and testnet, but I don't get the right hash in regtest. I mint +3000 blocks and I get the block with height 3000 bitcoin-cli getblock $(bitcoin-cli ...
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2answers
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How many transactions are there in one block

What I understand: When a transaction is made , miners compete to validate it and create a hash . If one miner creates the hash and more than 51% of miners agree on the validity .Then the a block is ...
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2answers
61 views

90% confidence interval for mining a block?

I did some math and found that the 90% confidence interval for bitcoin blocks is that the block will take less than 1381.6 seconds. I used the calculation ln(10)*600 with 10 being used because a 90% ...
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1answer
86 views

What is the job of miners in Bitcoin? [duplicate]

Q. Is it correct to state that a Bitcoin miner has only two jobs: validating transactions creating a block to add into the blockchain

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