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Questions tagged [mining-theory]

This tag should be used for questions about the function, the reason for, and the underlying concepts of mining.

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what prevents a miner from adding a false transaction to a block and then adding it to the block chain in PoW? [duplicate]

Here is what I understand, the step to PoW are: step 1:Miner select some transactions from its mempool. step 2:Miner tries to create a block and then broadcasts it if successful. step 3:Other ...
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1answer
64 views

Shorter Chains in blockdata

Assuming two blocks are published at exactly the same time, a race for the next block to be added to one of them begins, which eventually one chain will eventually win. My question: will the shorter ...
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What is the solution for addressing split about other cryptocuurancies? [closed]

I want to know how much other cryptocurrencies protocols are different from the Bitcoin protocol about addressing the splits? You know that split is when two miners mine a block with the same height. ...
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2answers
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Who will be the future miners?

We know that the bitcoin for mining a block is going to converge to approximately zero as the number of bitcoins will be almost constant after a certain amount of time. So, mining will no more ...
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6answers
19k views

What happens to the bitcoin network when the miners all stop in the future?

What happens to the bitcoin network when the miners all stop, years in the future after all the bitcoins have been mined? How will the network continue to function? Won't bitcoins then be useless? ...
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1answer
49 views

What are the steps to overcome a state in which miners couldn't mine blocks?

The difficulty is set according to the total hash rate of the network. Is there a possibility in which miners just can't validate blocks (will not find hash that will satisfy the POW)? I understand ...
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1answer
34 views

How long does it take to find a UTXO in UTXOs set?

to validate a TX, the miner or full node should first find the UTXO. How long does it take to find a specific UTXO in a list of UTXOs set? Right now, there are around 100 million of UTXOs. Then, how ...
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How can we find the hashrate distribution of different pools? [duplicate]

we can see that different websites propose some graphs in which the hash rate distribution is depicted, like the attached Figure. 1) I want to know that how do these websites approximate this ...
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1answer
55 views

Who can predict that a benign attacker has 51% hash rate of the system?

In the Bitcoin network, suppose that there is an attacker who has 60% hash-rate (hr) and then other users have 40% hr. Therefore, it is obcioust if other users generate any new block, attacker can ...
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1answer
23 views

what is the most suitable time interval for updating information on a block while mining the block

So, Bitcoin block consists of some static (magic number, version, previous hash...) and dynamic (timestamp, Merkle Root, transaction count and transactions) elements. What I don't understand is if we ...
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3answers
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Don't miners control who is allowed to make transactions?

Simple question really, considering theres a very small group of miners controlling the chain ATM. Whats to stop them from being forced by the goverment to disallow certain transactions or just mining ...
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1answer
30 views

How to transfer hash power from one pool to another

Is it possible to transfer hash power from one pool to another? If yes, how?
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2answers
39 views

How do more leading zeroes make it more difficult to find a block?

A couple of articles describing the process of mining do say that the more miners are in the network, the more 0 numbers are included in the encoded hash of the particular block. I cannot find an ...
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1answer
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Could a malicious attacker subvert the Bitcoin network by failing to create a block?

I know its astronomically improbable, but say a malicious node "wins" the proof of work inherent to the Bitcoin protocol. If a malicious node simply waited indefinitely, or maliciously disconnected ...
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3answers
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when a miner solves the problem in less than one timestamp then what does it do with its extra capacity?

If a miner solves the problem in less than one second then how does it use the extra capacity.
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3answers
1k views

What kind of problems are solved when mining?

I am new to bitcoin. Before I decide to buy the hardware/software I want to know about kind of problems solved. And more importantly do I need to be skilled in any specific area (like mathematics or ...
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What is the formula for inferring hash rate from difficulty and block frequency?

Two parts to this question 1/ There have recently been concerns over drops in hash rate observed on sites such as blockchain.com. However, my understanding is that hash rate is inferred from the ...
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1answer
29 views

How the difficulty of the network affect the average block mining time if we have static hash power?

Let's suppose that I have 500 KH/s of hash power overall from my mining rig. I'm about to start mining coin X and its network difficulty is Y. Current hashrate of the whole network is 100 KH/s and ...
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1answer
51 views

If I have 51% of the capacity of the entire network, can I mine absolutely all the blocks faster than the network?

I'm really wondering can I mine absolutely all the blocks in the network faster than rest miners with their 49% hashing power not for the purpose of conducting double-spend attack?
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A question about transaction broadcasting and block creation

Let's say we have transaction X and transaction Y. The timestamp of X is chronologically earlier than that of Y. X's spender broadcasts X to the network and the same goes for Y's spender. Let's say ...
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2answers
882 views

Which block header fields are miners able to change in an effort to avoid having to recalculate the Merkle Root?

In addition to the nonce and the Merkle Root, there are 4 other fields in the header - version, previous header hash, time and nbits. Assuming a miner does not want to change the merkle root because ...
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1answer
40 views

using rpccookiefile instead of username and password for antminers

I mine using username and password at the moment but as bitcoin core is changing over to rpccookiefile. My question is, if i use rpccookiefile how do i point my antminers to my local bitcoind 'pool' ...
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1answer
177 views

Can Undercutting attacks be Mitigated?

An Undercutting attack as described in this paper, is a mining strategy which involves producing new blocks not on the longest known chain, but instead 'undercutting' the longest chain by building a ...
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1answer
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How has the Bitcoin average block size recently risen above 3 MB?

I was aware that the block size could rise above the 1 MB cap due to SegWit. However, my understanding was that the block size would still be limited under SegWit. My understanding of SegWit is that ...
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1answer
32 views

Mining operation calculation

My goal is to understand bitcoin. I have read what happens during a transaction and have a question about it: When a transaction happen, the miners compute a value called "prof of work". This value ...
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6answers
7k views

51% attack - apparently very easy? refering to CZ's “rollback btc chain” - How to make sure such corruptible scenario can never happen so easily?

I was shocked to see binance CZ comment to literally "roll back" the bitcoin chain by just "calling" in some favors from "friendly" Asian miners . This ONE person could effectively do it??? I mean ...
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1answer
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How can size of a block be significantly small? [duplicate]

As we all know bitcoin block size should be sth about 1MiB. (Some blocks about 2MB). And this is because miners put all transactions to the block every 10 minutes. So what happens technically that ...
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1answer
195 views

A different way to create coinbase transaction

AFAIK when a miner succeeds in creating a block, he puts a special transaction (coinbase) in it which spends no input and sends a fixed amount of BTC to an address he can arbitrarily specify. Instead ...
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What Value does mining provide?

After reading the O'Reilly book and perusing online resources, I'm still confused about the value that the actual mathematical mining provides to Network (I understand it does provide value, but not ...
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1answer
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How many hash calculation is needed to reach one BTC?

What I am asking for is a formula and it's source of numbers to put in there and calculate how many hashes must be calculated to get 1 bitcoin today(or every other day in future)? For example, if I ...
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23 views

Are miner builder/sellers profitability calculations true?

regarding to this question here How many hash calculation is needed to reach one BTC? , it takes about 1387 years with 1 TH/s power rate to reach 1 BTC. So if someone has a machine with 53TH/s power ...
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1answer
26 views

Why all miners produce the same blocks

My understanding is that all miners are feeded with transactions published by full node servers, but I didn't understand why they end up with exactly the same transactions in their created blocks ? ...
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2answers
1k views

Why is the winner of Pow different everytime?

I just read about how miners have to change the nonce bit in order to find an hash below a certain result. Granted each miner process it the same way, incrementally, adding 1 and hashing, adding one ...
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1answer
43 views

How can i enable mining

My goal is to understand bitcoin. I do not want to earn money with mining. I have a server without GPU (intel i5 with 4 cores) Here is what i've done: I have downloaded, maked and installed bitcoin ...
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How does proof of work works? [duplicate]

I am wondering how POW calculation is working ? Is it basicly a hash brute force ? So it is based on probability and luck for miners ? Thanks
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1answer
59 views

Bitcoin blockchain minner

Q. Is it correct to state that a Bitcoin miner has only two jobs: validating transactions creating a block to add into the blockchain
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1answer
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Timer-based consensus algorithm in blockchain

Assume that there is an algorithm that ensures: 1- That a full node chooses an honest random wait time. 2- That the same node has waited the specified amount of time before proceeding to mine a block. ...
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2answers
110 views

Besides greater probablity of discovery, are there other **significant** optimizations a of mining pool?

Besides the benefit of increased attempts, are there any other significant, measurable optimizations that mining pools provide? I'm referring to intrinsic functions such as non-duplication of failed "...
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2answers
107 views

Is it possible to generate(mine) a block with specific transaction via bitcoin-cli on regtest?

I want to generate a block with specific transaction via bitcoin-cli on regtest. The "generate" command does not have the option. It collects transactions in mempool by the default rule. I guess I ...
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1answer
220 views

Is there only one method? for miner and pool communication?

I tried doing some sort of filtering on XMRig using wireshark on an ETN pool and I found that XMRig was using login method of JSON-RPC 2.0, my question is does all miners use this method? By "all" I ...
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75 views

What happens when a node cannot find the base Block of a newly received Block

This particular question has been bugging my mind for sometime now. Suppose there an adversary miner who mines a Block with one of his transactions. The miner would only send the updated Block to a ...
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1answer
31 views

Miners conceding forks

When bitcoin forks, does anyone know how many blocks ahead one chain gets before the miners on the shorter chain concede? I am doing a research project on modeling Bitcoin, and I am wondering how ...
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2answers
70 views

Mining Probability

Assuming two miners have a (1/x) chance of finding a block over some time period, is the probability of both miners finding a block within that period simply (1/x^2)? More generally, would n miners ...
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1answer
27 views

When a new block is propagated, nodes validate from genesis block to propagated block?

For example, I have a nth block and when n + 1 th block is propagated, i have to compare with n+1 block's previous hash and nth block's hash for validation. It is pretty trivial. But do i have to ...
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1answer
49 views

Is there any guarantee that mining will be profitable?

I'm not a money person. I deal with it only out of necessity. So say I have $1000.00 worth of Bitcoin and decide to enter the world of "mining". What's the physical process on my end and is there any ...
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3answers
533 views

Could I theoretically mine a block faster than 10 minutes?

I have been reading a lot about this 10 minute block in the Bitcoin network. I'm slightly confused because I thought mining was a somewhat random process, mostly based on how powerful your mining ...
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2answers
2k views

How to prevent a miner from stealing another miner's block?

Many articles only contain a phrasing like A miner A solves the hash problem and gives the result to the network to check. Once a majority of the network confirms, A gets the reward. But how does ...
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Will Bitcoin mining stop?

According to this site there are 3,260,162.5 bitcoins left to be mined. Do you know if eventually Bitcoin mining will stop after that? If yes which other cryptocurrency can be mined for ever? Thank ...
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3answers
714 views

Is bitcoin-gold more ASIC-resistant than Litecoin?

Bitcoin Gold's main point for existence has claimed to be ASIC-resistant in order to have mining power more distributed. But wasn't this tried already with Litecoin via Scrypt mining algorithm? I've ...
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2answers
25 views

Please guide what should i do

Am new in bitcoin world and didn't started it yet... A man from USA saying to create blockchain wallet n top up then share ur email n wallet address not login not password to connect my wallet to a s9 ...