Questions tagged [mining-theory]

This tag should be used for questions about the function, the reason for, and the underlying concepts of mining.

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6answers
7k views

51% attack - apparently very easy? refering to CZ's “rollback btc chain” - How to make sure such corruptible scenario can never happen so easily?

I was shocked to see binance CZ comment to literally "roll back" the bitcoin chain by just "calling" in some favors from "friendly" Asian miners . This ONE person could effectively do it??? I mean ...
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1answer
66 views

Does the pool miners in mining pool receive the same block in case of a fork?

For example there are 2 mining pools A and B and they mined a block in same time. Then, A mining pool got a block that A mining pool mined? Or nodes in mining pool receive independently so they ...
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1answer
70 views

How do miners construct and submit blocks [duplicate]

1) Assume there are 20 nodes in network and all are receiving all transactions. Afterr 10 min they all pick transactions from their transaction pool and start creating a block. Now, will all nodes use ...
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0answers
49 views

Orphaned block probability ratio

The probability of orphaned blocks should also take into consideration the proportion of the total mining hash power that the miner has. If M_i and M_j are 2 miners with p_i= 2* p_j (proportion of ...
2
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1answer
171 views

How does the 51 percent or 2/3 majority voting rule work?

For a block to be added to the chain, it needs vote from majority of miners, is that correct? If yes, does that mean a single block gets worked upon by all of the miners?
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2answers
99 views

Is the time taken for the verification of a transcation not much relevant?

By verification I do not mean the puzzle solving/hash calculating part but the part involving searching all of the blocks to check if the transaction is valid or not? For example if A transferred ...
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2answers
1k views

What is preventing me from simply constructing a hash that's lower than the current target?

I just started learning about Bitcoin, and something I can figure out is why miners have to use a random process (hashing a nonce) to get lower than the target. For example, if the target is ...
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1answer
58 views

Bitcoin fork resolution - Fork losers download previous blocks 'til common block?

When resolving a naturally occurring fork in Bitcoin, do the miners who were working on the orphaned fork download previous blocks from the miner who won the block reward that resolved the fork until ...
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2answers
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Why dont' nodes change the block version number when the nonce overflows?

After computing 4 billion nonces, the miner is supposed to update the merkle root. Why don't they choose a new nonce and assign it to the block version number and begin again? It would save time and ...
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1answer
29 views

Would it be possible to store hashes generated in a file, then brush through them to find out if they are under the target?

I have been wondering if it would be possible to generate hashes, store them in a file, then use them as hashes when mining. When you would mine, you would not generate the hashes, but instead, just ...
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2answers
149 views

Can the fees in a coinbase be used to launder Bitcoins?

Generally Bitcoins coming from a coinbase are considered clean as they are newly generated. However while answering this question I realized that mining pools could offer to launder Bitcoins in the ...
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1answer
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If miners are creating their own mining algorithms or using something standard

From this: the arrival of a new block has special significance for a mining node. The competition among miners effectively ends with the propagation of a new block that acts as an announcement of a ...
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1answer
116 views

Why every node needs to validate a transaction in Bitcoin

I am just understanding the Bitcoin network, and now understand that every block and every transaction is propagated to every node in the Bitcoin network (not sure yet the difference between full vs. ...
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1answer
47 views

If all Proof of … systems use mining

I understand how Proof of Work (PoW) works now, and am beginning to look at different Proof of ... systems like these: Proof of Stake Proof of Ownership Proof of Existence Proof of Space From what I ...
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1answer
116 views

Can the Bitcoin network boycott a misbehaving miner?

If a miner misbehaves, can other miners “boycott” him/her by refusing to build on top of his/her blocks in the future? Will such a “boycott” keep the miners from behaving badly?
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2answers
426 views

Is it possible to generate(mine) a block with specific transaction via bitcoin-cli on regtest?

I want to generate a block with specific transaction via bitcoin-cli on regtest. The "generate" command does not have the option. It collects transactions in mempool by the default rule. I guess I ...
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1answer
57 views

How can block time and block size be fixed when transaction volume is constantly increasing?

As I understand it the network rejects blocks over 1MB, and block hash difficulty is set after each block is created as to keep the block time close to 10min. But if people are constantly joining ...
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1answer
73 views

what happens if a miner include a transaction already exists in another block?

Suppose that I have a Transaction A. (txA) I send my txA to bitcoin network and full node validate it and put in Mempool and starts to broadcasting it. A Miner A connect to a fullnode to create a ...
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2answers
236 views

What is entropy mean in this context?

"The Bitcoin nonce forms part of the block header, which is used by miners to provide entropy as part of the Proof of Work process, to try and find a hash meeting the difficulty requirement." Quote ...
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1answer
53 views

How has the hash rate for bitcoin continued to increase despite price drops and miners dropping out?

Despite price dropping in 2018, the hash rate for bitcoin tripled from around 15 EH/s to 45 EH/s. Why is this the case? I am aware that the network difficulty adjusts meaning that if miners drop off, ...
0
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1answer
49 views

What are the steps to overcome a state in which miners couldn't mine blocks?

The difficulty is set according to the total hash rate of the network. Is there a possibility in which miners just can't validate blocks (will not find hash that will satisfy the POW)? I understand ...
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1answer
127 views

Does Merkle Tree root hash changed when miner node not found POW nonce?

In bitcoin PoW process,if miner does not found the nonce, I understand that he must to increase nonce and rehash the entire block header again to mine the new block. so if nonce defined 4byte[between ...
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2answers
21 views

Can we get a fixed rate of kWH to USD through bitcoin? [closed]

Assuming the energy to bitcoin rate of your choosing, what is the cost of one kiloWatt Hour, in USD?
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1answer
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Do you start from the LAST NONCE to find the correct HASH to solve Hash Puzzle in Bitcoin Mining?

I'm reading the example of the simple proof of work algorithm from here: https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/mastering-bitcoin/9781491902639/ch08.html#pow_example_outputs In that example, the nonce ...
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0answers
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How does work the next block election in blockchain? [duplicate]

In the mining process each miner will create a block with the transactions found in the pool and will start the calculation of nonce, the miner with greater hash power will finish the job first and ...
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1answer
47 views

How do I know that the majority of bitcoin miners are not XYZ government's facilities? [closed]

Even if "Satoshi Nakamoto" is/was actually a real person, how can I be sure that XYZ government (XYZ can be US, or China, or ...) does not have now (or will not have in the future) 51% of the hashing ...
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2answers
30 views

Is the price of BTC transactions driven down by the influx of miners?

I'm wondering why Bitcoin transaction speed doesn't increase (and cost decrease) due to more people becoming miners all the time. Is it because the number of transactions is increasing even faster?
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2answers
250 views

What is the counterpart of mining when using blockchain for traceability?

Our project is to create a blockchain so that a customer can traceback any registered good (such as food or drugs). The idea is to replace money with product IDs. (ERC721 from Ethereum does not do the ...
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3answers
326 views

Reason for Mininig a block without transaction

I came to know that there are people who mine a new block without any transaction. I understand that this is just to get the block reward. Reference https://www.blockchain.com/btc/block/...
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2answers
223 views

Mining: what is the lowest possible target? Could it be a block hash of all zeros?

I had a basic question about Bitcoin mining. I understand that as the bitcoin difficulty adjustment becomes harder the hash output will require more 0s in the beginning of the hash. Is it ...
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1answer
69 views

Do you really need more than 50% mining power in order to attack Bitcoin blockchain?

My question is about concept, so code is not related, however, do you really need 51% of the mining power in order to attack/replace the real bitcoin Blockchain? For example, a blockchain has a ...
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3answers
383 views

How many nodes need to validate a newly created block?

It must be impossible for a newly created block to be propagated and validated by every node in bitcoin network considering offline nodes and the ones with poor Internet connectivity. How many ...
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1answer
84 views

Do pools distribute “jobs” to miners based on “failed” solutions which have already been submitted?

My question is this: How exactly does the stratum protocol distribute "work" to miners? More specifically, since mining can be compared (in many regards) to "brute forcing" a cryptographic hash (i.e. ...
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3answers
47 views

Is this article wrong/scammy? Is it possible that miner earn more by mining several different coins at once through minergate?

https://ambcrypto.com/mining-in-the-bear-market-made-easy-fast-and-cheap-with-minergate/ This one claims they can mine more efficiently by mining several coins at once. I have a hard time believing ...
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1answer
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creating a hash that starts wtih 9 zeros [closed]

I am working on a school problem and want to generate a hash starting with 9 zeros, it is assumed to be the first block with only your name and the previous hash is 64 zeros. Can anybody help me or ...
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1answer
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What incentive do miners have to respect the Replace-By-Fee flag?

Couldn't a miner treat all transactions in their mempool as if they had Replace-By-Fee enabled? After all they could always claim that they hadn't seen the original transaction.
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1answer
320 views

Why would running a light node riskier and subject to more frauds than a full node? We don't NEED a full ledger, do we?

I've been reading on light node and many have pointed out that the light node doesn't have the full blockchain and is riskier because they can't verify the transactions fully. First, we can verify ...
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4answers
93 views

Why does a malicious miner need more hashing power than the rest of the network combined? [duplicate]

I don’t quite understand why a malicious miner needs more hashing power than the rest of the network combined. When miners are solving a hash puzzle, aren’t they solving the puzzle individually? If ...
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1answer
70 views

How can Bitcoin Cash be blocks ahead of Bitcoin SV

After the Bitcoin Cash & Bitcoin SV fork, Bitcoin Cash is happy to be "ahead" of Bitcoin SV, but how is this possible? aren't blocks supposed to be mined constantly every 10 min?
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1answer
117 views

Is it possible to take advantage of FP16 for mining BTC or ALTs?

I know mining uses mostly Integers, not Floating Point Ops... but still, is it possible to use Graphics Cards that support native 16bit Math for mining? Will it improve the performance in specific ...
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2answers
40 views

What happens when the verification of a manipulated transaction fail?

If a malicious miner changes the amount in a given transaction, the hash value of the block changes. Thus, he has to find the required hash value again in that block. Let's say he successfully found ...
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1answer
105 views

Someone want to mine with my bitcoin (www.elitecoinmine.com) Promises?

I just signed up to ask this Question. Shoort story about me: I don't know much about crypto currency, just spend 50Eur once to buy some Dash. Anyway, there's a guy writing me via my instagram and ...
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2answers
85 views

Do miners become temporary dictators of blocks they mined?

This is something I've read here: https://blockgeeks.com/guides/bitcoin-forks-guide/ "When a group of miners discovers and mine a new block, they become temporary dictators of that block" Can anyone ...
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1answer
30 views

Transaction is not Picked

I am new to block chain technology. I am struggling to understand below concepts: What if my transaction is not picked by the miners and what is the criteria for miners to pick? How can I rely on ...
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2answers
299 views

Ttransaction validation in the bitcoin blockchain

I am confused. What is exactly a validation of transaction in the bitcoin block chain? Please correct me if I am wrong. I know we need 6 minner to validate our transaction and those 6 minner check ...
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1answer
86 views

What is the job of miners in Bitcoin? [duplicate]

Q. Is it correct to state that a Bitcoin miner has only two jobs: validating transactions creating a block to add into the blockchain
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1answer
163 views

Bitcoin is attacked by China miners by screwing with the network, what will Bitcoin do?

There was a report recently (https://arxiv.org/pdf/1810.02466.pdf) that stated that China controls 74% of the hashing power. They can choose to collude and attack the network by either doing a 51% ...
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0answers
28 views

What are some proposed solutions when Bitcoin block rewards drop below 1 BTC? [duplicate]

Many proponents state that Bitcoin will not work in the long term when block rewards drop below 1 BTC or even zero and have mining rely on just transaction fees. I never did the math calculations ...
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1answer
66 views

Where in the source code are transaction validation checks implemented?

I understand that consensus (mining) and transaction validation are different concepts. Correct me if I'm wrong, but I believe each full node validates transactions and puts the valid ones into its ...
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0answers
224 views

Estimated number of hashes

This is not a duplicate of previous, similar questions I've read on StackExchange, since none of those questions, nor the answers, go into the difficulty theory, as espoused on the Bitcoin Wiki. ...

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