Questions tagged [mining-theory]

This tag should be used for questions about the function, the reason for, and the underlying concepts of mining.

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What advantages do large-scale miners have?

Do established mining hardware companies (e.g., Bitmain) offer discounts to mining operations that place large orders (e.g., orders for 100s or 1000s of units)? Since this is a competitive business, ...
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40 views

How many numbers to try to solve the proof-of-work problem

I'm preparing for a lecture on blockchain, where I'm going to briefly explain the proof-of-work mechanism and the hashcash challenge. To illustrate the difficulty, I want to give the maximum amount of ...
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Is it possible for an unsolvable block to exist?

Is there a proof that the hashing will always yield a result? Or proof that there exist unsolvable blocks? It's my understanding that even if we hit an unsolvable block that eventually the ...
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47 views

Do most small miners join mining pools? Is "pay-per-share" the dominant approach?

Is it correctly understood that most individual/small miners join mining pools? Is "pay-per-share" (or some variations thereof) the most popular mining pool approach, which means that the ...
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133 views

How to create bitcoin coin , coinbase transaction?

I know about createrawtransaction '[{"txid":"0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000","vout":0}]' '{"39jbHRLG6Z2KgXLHR3BWgbccZde1Moo15k"...
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1answer
126 views

Lowest numbered Bitcoin hash? [duplicate]

I was thinking about which bitcoin block has the lowest numbered hash. What I mean by a hash as a number is that. For example, the number "1" has a lower hash than "2" in SHA256. ...
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66 views

Why do other miners check block validity along with proof of work? [duplicate]

I am new to blockchains and bitcoins. So, please pardon the lack of understanding. Assume I am a miner who adds a bogus transaction (say a transfer from my account which has 0 balance to my other ...
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146 views

List of different unknown mining pools

A miner can identify himself when he receive his coinbase transaction, we can view them on website offering block explorer like https://www.blockchain.com/charts/pools Some of these miners are listed ...
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125 views

What is the relationship between bitmain-freq, Hashrate and Power Consumption?

I am running a few old miners (T9+) to heat my home and they are too loud and making a loss (which is ok, as I am interested in the heat). Following this suggestions (sticking with the standard ...
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31 views

Can eavesdropping help mining at all?

My understanding is that if a miner uses a particular coinbase address then already this address is offsetting the computation to a whole different set of results… Can someone, mathematically speaking,...
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70 views

Calculate block hash is different in regtest?

I'm able to calculate the block hash in mainnet and testnet, but I don't get the right hash in regtest. I mint +3000 blocks and I get the block with height 3000 bitcoin-cli getblock $(bitcoin-cli ...
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467 views

How many transactions are there in one block

What I understand: When a transaction is made , miners compete to validate it and create a hash . If one miner creates the hash and more than 51% of miners agree on the validity .Then the a block is ...
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90% confidence interval for mining a block?

I did some math and found that the 90% confidence interval for bitcoin blocks is that the block will take less than 1381.6 seconds. I used the calculation ln(10)*600 with 10 being used because a 90% ...
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235 views

How come some algorithms are better for GPU mining vs CPU mining? [closed]

How come some algorithms are better for GPU mining vs CPU mining? From what I know (that may be wrong) most Ethereum miners use GPUs? And bitcoin miners use CPU and ASIC mining? What are the different ...
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88 views

Why is not possible for a hacker to intercept the hashes calculated by a miner, and send it all himself as if he was a miner?

(I tried to make a more specific question, but is a bit confusing to me. Sorry.) When a miner calculate a hash, where exactly does he send to in order to validate it? To all the nodes in the network? ...
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94 views

What stops miners from manipulating "target" difficulty in the block header?

I am relatively new to understanding the fundamentals of the Bitcoin network, and I couldn't find the answer to my question. I understand how mining difficulty/target is decided and calculated in the ...
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106 views

Can we check if a miner has validated the solution?

When a miner finds a solution for the block and broadcasts it to the other node, all the other nodes verify if it is a correct solution or not. The idea pops up a few questions in my head: I read ...
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46 views

How is a block solution broadcasted?

As we know there are scores of mining pool around the globe but some are pretty big ones such as Antpool, Poolin, BTC.com etc. with majority of them lying in China https://www.buybitcoinworldwide.com/...
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9k views

Why do miners go offline?

As per my understanding mining process in bitcoin is fully automated. A manual intervention is needed only when: (i) A hardware failure occurs (ii) You might want to cool down the hardware (iii) You ...
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1answer
105 views

Some miners set the nVersion field of the block header to 0x8000004. What were they signalling for? Was this an error?

Some miners set the nVersion field of the block header to 0x8000004. What were they signalling for? Is this an error? I have been through a lot of the BIP documentations, but cannot seem to find any ...
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198 views

Would this alternative to Proof of Work work? [closed]

I'm fairly new to the subject, but I've read enough to figure out that Proof of Work has a problem concerning mining pools, and other alternatives don't seem to convince me either. I thought of my own,...
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65 views

What was the first BIP9 block? Block 370,434 (0x20000007) or Block 398,364 (0x30000000)?

Block 370,434 (00100000000000000000000000000111) and (0x20000007) Yes: BIP9 says set top 3 bits to 001. No: BIP101 explicitly says set first, second, third and 30th bits to 1. No: No mention of BIP9 ...
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160 views

What is the optimal way to increment extranonce?

I'm trying to learn how to block headers are created and an efficient way of doing so. Given a list .of transactions, can I change the extranonce without having to rehash the entire list? EDIT: To ...
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1answer
56 views

How were miners supposed to signal support for BIP148?

Under BIP141 (SegWit), you could signal support by setting nVersion bit 1 equal to 1. BIP9 counted: 20000002 100000000000000000000000000010 20000012 100000000000000000000000010010 30000007 ...
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Is a hypothetical Bitcoin network on Mars guaranteed to fork from the one on Earth?

Electromagnetic waves take between ~4 and ~24 minutes (mean: ~14 minutes) to travel a one-way trip between Earth and Mars. Suppose I set up a Bitcoin network on Mars. Is it guaranteed to eventually ...
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288 views

What is the probability of mining a block by a miner controlling a fraction of hashing power?

Suppose a miner controls α fraction of the hashing power and the chain on which he is trying to mine has the mining rate given by f. How to find the probability of mining a block by the miner?
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186 views

Could Bitcoin have a fixed difficulty?

Could Bitcoin have a fixed difficulty, how to implement that for a test and what would that mean in terms of mining? Would there be a difference if mining with a big rig or just a wallet?
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102 views

Why do we often see 2 blocks mined within a few seconds of each other?

This seems to happen far more frequently than one would expect from a Poisson distribution with a ~10 minute mean. Am I just bad at statistics or is something else going on?
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Why is a 51% attack guaranteed to outpace the rest of the network's miners? Doesn't 51% hashing power give only a slightly higher chance?

I thought hashing power is an expression of the probability of being the one to solve the cryptographic puzzle and placing a new block on the network. If that's true, owning 51% of the hashing power ...
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3k views

Do miners validate each other's blocks?

I understand that to mine a block, miners solve a cryptographic problem and the solution can be easily verified by other nodes on the network, appending the new block to their blockchain. But why do ...
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232 views

BIP34, BIP66 and BIP65 should have been enforced at unique block heights. Why do different sources claim different block heights for enforcement?

Inconsistent Consensus/Activation of BIPs BIP34 Activated Block Height 227,835 (BitMEX Reference) Activated Block Height 227,930 (Bitcoin Developer Reference) Activated Block Height 227,931 (...
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650 views

How does the mathematical problem get harder for bitcoin mining over time?

How does it become harder for miners to extract bitcoin as time passes (excluding increasing computer capabilities and the competition between miners accordingly)? Is related to the amount of bitcoins ...
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508 views

How do miners earn partial bitcoins?

I know that the miner who has the hash matching with the bitcoin's root software gets to stamp the block and put it onto the blockchain (correct me if I'm wrong). Accordingly, that miner takes the ...
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134 views

Is This a Bitcoin Scam? [duplicate]

Is this a bitcoin scam? He is not asking for my username and is having me change my password before sending him the link to my mining wallet. A bitcoin miner on LinkedIn wants to mine for me. He ...
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251 views

Why do miners need a nonce if the timestamp changes the hash of the block?

As the title says. If the timestamp is constantly changing with every guess, why does the miner also include the nonce? Is it because they're mining too fast for the timestamp to change?
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58 views

How proof of work works in Blockchain?

Sorry, if the question may seem trivial but it is bothering me for a while now. I understood how the proof of concept works when one tries to change an old block. But how that will work for the case ...
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1answer
89 views

How do bitcoin nodes agree who first mined ablock?

Once transactions are broadcast and a node starts working on a proof of work, and finds it, it broadcasts it to all other nodes for that block to be verified and added onto their blockchain. All nodes ...
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329 views

Why don't bitcoin miners use the padding as extra-nonce?

The bitcoin block header is 80 bytes, but the SHA-256 input is required to be a multiple of 64 bytes; as a result, the block header needs 48 bytes of additional padding. Therefore, why doesn't the ...
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271 views

Is there a limit on the size of the block header?

I know that the current bitcoin block size limit is about 1,000,000 bytes (1 megabyte) of data. This includes both the block header as well as the transaction data. On the other hand, the typical ...
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62 views

Incentives against selfish miners with 51% power

To me the situation of a '51% miner' is much like a government printing money - when they do, they get to finance their budget deficits as they get to spend the money first (when prices haven't ...
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76 views

Doesn't overt AsicBoost reduce the search space for a valid block header hash?

ASICBoost is a new method to mine bitcoins with a 20% speedup, as covered in this article: https://blog.bitmex.com/an-overview-of-the-covert-asicboost-allegation-2/ Now, consider the following ...
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Why can't Grover's algorithm be used for bitcoin mining?

Similar questions have been asked before: Can quantum computing improve Bitcoin mining? Can a Qubit Miner ASIC device be created and what would its impact be on the mining community? However, none ...
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Incentive for miners to keep mining once reward get very low [duplicate]

Currently each winning miner receive 12.5 bitcoin or 12.5*10 000 dollar per successfully mined block and the amount of bitcoin receive is divided by 2 approximately each 4 years. The incentive to ...
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52 views

Mining pools communicating outside of network

Does anyone know of any papers / evidence of bitcoin mining pools communicating outside of the bitcoin network for financial gain? It seems plausible in practice, but I am not sure if that has ...
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119 views

Is it possible to mine bitcoins faster on CPUs with this strategy?

This guy on bitcointalk.org suggested a potentially faster method for mining bitcoins using CPUs: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=265759.0 To quote from the author: "Rather than ...
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1answer
41 views

If I were executing a 51% attack, would I be broadcasting my state of the network to nodes?

In the scenario where an entity has control of greater than 51% of the hash power and wishes to build a longer chain where they double-spend previously confirmed transactions, do they broadcast the ...
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235 views

Calculate the hash of mined block using stratum parameters (coinb1, coinb2, xtranonce1...)?

Miners get several parameters from the stratum pool: coinb1, coinb2, xtranonce1, xtranonce2... according to here. I wonder if it is possible to reproduce the hash of one already mined block, but ...
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542 views

What prevents a miner to be ignored by the other participants?

What prevents that certain miners and the blocks they can contribute to the chain are not ignored? What do the other participants in the network gain from accepting their answers to the puzzle?
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115 views

What is the SPV Mining Exploit?

Can anyone explain this simply? I am not finding enough explanation exactly on this type of attack. If possible, add some additional reading to your answer so that I can understand more.
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102 views

Will this bitcoin mining strategy work?

I'm new to bitcoin, and my knowledge of bitcoin is quite garbled and messy (I have only a vague understanding of Satoshi's original white paper for bitcoin......) I've been reading up on bitcoin ...

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