Questions tagged [mining-theory]

This tag should be used for questions about the function, the reason for, and the underlying concepts of mining.

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Energy to confirm one block with state-of-the-art hardware at current difficulty level [duplicate]

An earlier answer claims it would burn around $2M worth of electricity to confirm one block using an ordinary CPU. See: Energy to confirm one block? Can anyone estimate what this figure would be for ...
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183 views

How nonce and diffuculty work?

I struggle to understand one concept behind mining. It would be really great if someone could clarify some things. This is an extract from blockgeeks: From a technical point of view, mining process ...
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Have all hashes of unlocked difficulty levels of cryptocurrencies been mined?

I'm wondering if all the hashes of a previously unlocked difficulty level of a cryptocurrency, such as 0000000000000000xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx BTC , have been completely ...
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46 views

Using mining pools, how do miners switch what coin to mine so quickly?

Using mining pools, how do miners switch what coin to mine so quickly? Can someone explain? Also do miners store a copy of the blockchain locally?
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Why is mining an important part of a digital coin? [duplicate]

I have been playing with the blockchain lately and studying how Bitcoin works. I was wondering though, what is the functional reason for the mining process? I understand that you get a reward for ...
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86 views

What is the reason to pay miners “monetary rewards” for mining process?

Is it correct to say that: In Bitcoin, it is crucial to incentivize miners by monetary reward, because mining process has significant monetary cost (energy/electricity cost). ? otherwise, mining ...
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What is resource of mining rewards

How the coins must be paid miners for mining process is provided? One of resources may be transactions fee. Is there any other resources for proving reward of miners?
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Why are miners allowed to not announce their mined blocks to the network?

My question relates to a 51% Attack. As far as I understand, for this to work the miner must have a secret fork of the main blockchain, which he will later announce, whenever it becomes longer than ...
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590 views

How are nonces decided in mining?

I know that when I create a new block in a Bitcoin network, I change the nonce value to generate a block. The question is, do you randomly assign the values you assign to nonces? Or do you start with ...
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When does a node start mining the next block?

Will a particular node on the Bitcoin network begin mining the next block after it has successfully been mined? Mine right away. When the node with the best computation power among the nodes ...
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190 views

Farming with CPU in my Lan

I have recently built an internet network for my entire condominium to use for a very cheap price, and i thought, why not farm bitcoins with it using users CPU? I heard about coffee miners, but i ...
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50 views

Smaller transactions are easier to validate; larger transactions take more work in Bitcoin

I am working on Bitcoin and trying to understand how transaction fee is calculated. Bitcoin support site states that the reason for selection of small and large transaction by miner: Again due to ...
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337 views

how do miners verify transaction without identifying sender and receiver?

I mean in satoshi paper we read sender and receiver have limited anonymity. By keeping public keys anonymous. The public can see that someone is sending an amount to someone else, but without ...
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194 views

How is the target in Bitcoin set? Who does this?

I want to understand how the target value is adjusted or by whom in Bitcoin. I know that the hash of a block + nonce must be lower or equal to the given target for mining. Who sets this target ? If ...
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548 views

Mining Theory: What would happen if a block hash collision occured? [duplicate]

To my knowledge, neither SHA256 or scrypt have ever had provable instances of hash collisions occur.. However, if this highly unlikely event was to happen, what would that mean for the state of the ...
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49 views

why block minning not interrupted when block found?

I am working with bitcion version < ver. 0.13.0 which contains the setgenerate true functionallity. I could see in some situations during minning process that when I find a solution, but the other ...
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1answer
42 views

Who set the rules for validating a block in blockchain?

Who set the rules for validating a block in blockchain? The rules can be set the creator of the blockchain network. There might be some rules on the application that uses the blockchain network. Is ...
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1answer
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How are blocks accepted in bitcoin?

These are steps to run the network quoted from the Bitcoin white paper (https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf): New transactions are broadcast to all nodes. Each node collects new transactions into a ...
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270 views

Does a Block contain the list of transactions? Or only the Merkle Tree?

I was wondering how a block encodes its set of transactions. I know a Merkle Tree is generated, and that it encodes a Hashed version of the transactions. But is the Merkle Tree included in the Block ...
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308 views

Why aren't block hashes used directly as scores for difficulty purposes?

Why does Bitcoin apply a difficulty function to block hashes and then use the output of this function to add up and determine the "longest" chain? Why not just e.g. add together all block hashes (as ...
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terminology and conceptual question about progress of PoW

what is wrong about thinking prbobability of attacker increases with time t that goes into PoW since they have more time to secretly mine their alternate blockchain ? This refer to double ...
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44 views

double spending , you can create money out of thinner air [duplicate]

I am a little confused about how doublespending is done. The basic case is basically creating transactions to the seller and yourself and simultaneously broadcasting those. This is the very classic ...
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What is a good resource to learn about bitcoin [closed]

I’ve got to this point reading various blogs, articles, other stackexchange threads and watching Youtube videos on the subject and still have a ton of questions. I don’t expect the questions below to ...
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what distribution does the hashrate follow?

Where can i find historical data for the distribution ? How does it fluctuate ? It is not constant, correct ? Mr Nakamoto in his white paper assumed it was constant ?
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how is the current hashing power (of the entire network) measured (in real time)?

1) does hash power refers to mining nodes only ? 2) we don't know how many nodes there are on the bitcoin network , correct ? how do we count them ? 3) would we need to know [2] in order to figure ...
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44 views

what does it mean to have >51% hashing power for mining a block? [duplicate]

Can someone please shine some light on this and how it links to the analogy between honest node and attacker ? also can attacker start mining 2 blocks ahead ? or 3 or 4 blocks ahead ? In the white ...
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50 views

What is the exact input for the hash function?

I've read that it's some variation of: version, previous block hash, merkle root, time, bits, and nonce, but I'm not certain on where to get this data and how it should be formatted. I'd like to know ...
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54 views

Mining Theory: A theoretical mining based attack

Okay, so, here is my scenario: Imagine a group of miners who are mining a coin are responsible for a large portion of the hash rate on the network (let's say not quite 50%). Looking at the parameters ...
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63 views

Transaction vaildation

I have understood that miners validate the transactions by checking for double spends and that the transaction was not already confirmed, what I don't understand is how the miners are able to do this ...
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Why is the probability of finding a winning nonce exactly the same for a new header and a header where you've already tried 1 billion nonces?

I'm referring to this question: When do miners stop waiting for new transactions? More specifically, this statement from the top answer: "suppose you have a block header h1 on which you have ...
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Hardware-dependent block difficulty?

Is it possible to make block production difficulty not the same for every node, but automatically adjusting to the node's hardware speed? For example, node A and node B are both trying to solve for ...
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57 views

Could a large group of miners theoretically lower the network hashrate to manipulate difficulty?

I am relatively new to understanding the fundamentals of the Bitcoin network, so I am still trying to learn how the actions of miners can influence the direction of the blockchain. Back to my main ...
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1answer
59 views

Why this alternative method to mining will fail?

From what I understand, we need mining to validate the block, we need the proof of work to limit the number of miners can add a block, and we need the block interval to give time to the new block to ...
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how long does it take for an mining machine to exhaust 2^32 in minutes and what is the actual speed of mining machines?

Mining is usually about taking the double sha. most if not all mining machines such as bitminer's machines usually give some indications for example 1TH/sec per second. Do they count the double sha ...
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581 views

Why is it important that the hash algorithm is puzzle friendly?

I don't understand "PUZZLE FRIENDLY". Here the definition I read: A hash function h is puzzle friendly if for every possible N-bit output value y, if K is chosen from a distribution with high ...
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75 views

Why not to mine more efficient?

I'm a kinda newbie here. But this is what I completely can not understand. If every single miner have to 'arrange' transactions and then compute a SHA-256 function of a given memory chunk, and if ...
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Why we need mining?

I know is related to these: What is the rationale behind Bitcoin mining? Why do we need Proof of Work in bitcoin? But I don't fully understand those answers, and I think usually is much easier to ...
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1answer
51 views

who actually amasses or builds the blocks … and how do they get passed to miners?

The question is not about the block being included on the block chain, but who actually creates a block? Like what is the process here. Can someone walk me through this? I do know that blocks are ...
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143 views

nTime rolling is just an optimization for large/fast pools, correct?

Need to confirm my understanding of nTime rolling... It's used to give the miner more options to mine without needing to request more work from the pool, by incrementing the timestamp. However, given ...
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What are the units of “difficulty”?

In various places, e.g. here and here, there are plots of the "difficulty" of bitcoin mining over time. What exactly is the interpretation of these numbers - in what units are they measured? My first ...
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138 views

What exactly is selfish mining?

What is a selfish mining attack MonaCoin suffered from?
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What’s the difference between a validation by nodes and a verification by miners?

In Mastering Bitcoin, it says: The transaction is then broadcasted on the bitcoin network, where each network node (participant) validates and propagates the transaction until it reaches (...
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Possible error in the white paper Calculations section?

Section 11 presents calculations of the probability of double spending, P(z, q), given an attacker relative hash rate q and a block count z. P(z, q) can only be understood by knowing exactly what z ...
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1answer
118 views

Is the bitcoin blockchain really non-corruptible? [duplicate]

Some people say that proof of work is better than proof of stake, because it's not possible to rewrite the whole blockchain on-spot. One would need to "re-mine" everything. But I think this is not ...
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Intuitive CryptoCurrency?

How would cryptocurrencies be explained intuitively? I tried reading about bitcoin but most articles explain broad concepts ambiguously, and I want to understand the concepts so I could potentially ...
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1answer
639 views

How are the transactions chosen from the Mempool if every node has its Mempool?

I have this scenario: So whenever a wallet user is initiating a transaction, this goes as far as I understood into a Mempool. And that each node has its own Mempool. I have some questions though: Do ...
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1answer
320 views

How does Proof-of-Stake works programmatically

I've researched on the internet, but am still confused about how Proof-of-stack works programmatically. As mentioned here, in Proof-of-Stake system, A random Nextcoin is selected to be the next "...
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3answers
688 views

Why do transaction fees exist in the Bitcoin blockchain if miners get rewarded with newly created bitcoins?

My question is why transaction fees exist, even though the miners would still get rewarded with the newly created bitcoins when/if they mine a block. Miners will rather verify transactions with a ...
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1answer
100 views

Would mining future bitcoins break the bitcoin?

assuming an bitcoin miner with very much hashrate like bitmain would decide to mine "future" bitcoin blocks and provide them within very short time to the network, would this break the bitcoin? As i ...
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Is it possible to get rid of mining pools and therefore get a truly decentralized bitcoin?

There are some criticism that PoW of bitcoin and ethereum protocol suffers from the centralization of mining pools, and dPos such as EOS claimed to be more decentralized in practice than bitcoin and ...

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