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Questions tagged [multi-signature]

Multi-signature addresses require m-of-n signatures to authorize spending funds sent to them.

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Can a Seed be Linked Across Two Multisig Wallets?

Consider two multisig wallets, Wallet A and Wallet B, both with a 2-of-3 signing scheme: Wallet A consists of seeds A, B, and C. Wallet B consists of seeds B, C, and D. Now, let's create two ...
Bertram Lund's user avatar
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Does a OP_CHECKSIGADD and OP_EQUAL script for a threshold signature fail if you provide too many valid signatures in the unlocking script?

For this CHECKSIGADD script for a 2-of-3 multisig: <pk1> OP_CHECKSIG <pk2> OP_CHECKSIGADD <pk3> OP_CHECKSIGADD OP_2 OP_EQUAL What happens if you provide more than the 2 required ...
Michael Folkson's user avatar
3 votes
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Help! About how to spend OP_checksigadd Multi-sig

I write a simple taproot-based script in bitcoinjs, like: <pk1> OP_CHECKSIG <pk2> OP_CHECKSIGADD <pk3> OP_CHECKSIGADD OP_2 OP_EQUAL It should be a 3-2 threshold account, that require ...
user152745's user avatar
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Spending paths for subset of n-of-n multisig

I would like to achieve the following. A group of N people come together and create an n-of-n multisig. Each of them funds this multisig with a custom amount of bitcoin. At some point in the future, ...
Neo's user avatar
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How to claim funds in a multisig address from a money pool psbt?

Mostly followed this guide on how to create a psbt where multiple users pool money together. Everything is done in regtest. The gist of what I did is as follows: Created 2 different descriptor ...
Psi's user avatar
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Is there an idiomatic way to prove ownership of a (extended) public key?

Is there an idiomatic way to verify ownership of an (extended) public key? Preferably without spending coins, although I'm also interested in methods of doing so by producing a transaction as this ...
max's user avatar
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How do pre-Segwit nodes interpret transactions containing Taproot OP_CHECKSIGADD?

When pre-Segwit nodes encounter blocks with Segwit transactions, they'll see them as "spent anyone can spend" transactions and so can validate them and move on to the next block. However, ...
Lee's user avatar
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What did the opcode 0xba do prior to creation of OP_CHECKSIGADD?

From BIP0342: The opcode 186 (0xba) is named as OP_CHECKSIGADD. What did 0xba do prior to this?
Lee's user avatar
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Why does OP_CHECKSIG/OP_CHECKMULTISIG remove the signature from the subscript?

When OP_CHECKSIG is used, all instances of the signature are removed from the subScript before it's included in a transaction template to be verified. See also step 3 in this excellent diagram. The ...
Lee's user avatar
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How are Bitkey's spending limits enforced?

Block's new Bitkey is a 2-of-3 multi signature wallet (https://bitkey.world/en-US) I've been reading their white paper, which is a good summary of their intentions, but doesn't really go into ...
atonaltensor's user avatar
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BTC multisig wallet with rekeying

I'm trying to create a Bitcoin multisig wallet. At this point, the wallet must meet the following conditions must be capable of k-of-n threshold signatures (schnorr, musig, etc.) it should be ...
dohyeon.eth's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
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Creating a raw Segwit transaction from scratch and getting Signature must be zero for failed CHECK(MULTI)SIG operation

I am trying to create a Segwit transaction on TESTNET from scratch while referencing an online guide: https://medium.com/coinmonks/creating-and-signing-a-segwit-transaction-from-scratch-ec98577b526a ...
thotheolh's user avatar
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bitcoinjs - mandatory-script-verify-flag-failed (Signature must be zero for failed CHECK(MULTI)SIG operation)

I'm trying to follow the below transaction example by magic eden and extend it to support multiple buyers and seller (in red). However I am having difficulties when I add more than one signature from ...
psbt_trustless_tx's user avatar
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How can I know the Bitcoin Transfer Transactions on Bisq?

I am trying to get some blocks from Bisq. I used their API to get the blocks. Then I discovered that blocks are missing some inputs, so I used their API again to get these transactions. But, I ...
Abdulrahman Hocaoglu's user avatar
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Can multisignature be required only to create a transaction?

I'm a little confused about multisignatures, so the following question may not even make sense. I understand that a transaction can be created with a script that requires M-of-N signatures as a ...
materia-nigra's user avatar
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Export a taproot multisig wallet

I have created a wallet, added a descriptors to make it multisig with tr(KI, multi_a(2,pub1,pub2,pub3) command. Now, I want to import this to some UI but since the wallet doesn't have a private key I ...
Shadow's user avatar
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Multisig for Bitcoin ordinals wallet

I am trying to make and receive transactions on Unisat wallet, but Unisat doesn't support multisig. How do I implement multisig for a wallet that supports ordinals?
Shadow's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Zpub vs xpub not matching between seedsigner and sparrow?

Generated a multisig xpub via Seedsigner. Loaded this to sparrow via camera-reading of seedsigner's QR code. Sparrow & Seedsigner fingerprints match, as do derivation paths, but Seedsigner ...
Runeaway3's user avatar
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1 vote
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Cannot import multisignature descriptor in Bitcoin Core

I created a multisignature address in regtest: ADDR_1=`bitcoin-cli getnewaddress "" "bech32"` ADDR_2=`bitcoin-cli getnewaddress "" "bech32"` PB1=$(bitcoin-cli -...
monkeyUser's user avatar
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Sign a multi-signature transaction with imported address

I have an address with three compressed public keys: SCRIPT="5221"$(cat compressed_public_key_1.txt)"21"$(cat compressed_public_key_2.txt)"21"$(cat ...
monkeyUser's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
171 views

Which hardware wallets require importation of PSBT for knowledge of multisig set up?

My understanding of a multi-vendor multisig is that certain wallets require importation of the resultant multisig wallet's PSBT information in order to sign multisig transactions. Coldcard's ...
Runeaway3's user avatar
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Can I use 2 individual private keys to spend from my Bip32 HD 2 or 2 multisig?

Example keys are fake: If I build a 2 of 2 in Sparrow or any Bip32 Determ wallet, with P2WSH native segwit, and ONLY send funds to the very FIRST receiving address: m/48'/0'/0'/2'/0/0: ...
George's user avatar
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1 vote
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Is the signature check performed when the signature is the empty vector?

In this answer Vojtěch Strnad wrote the following: OP_CHECKSIGADD always performs one check per signature, since unused public keys are required to be paired with an empty witness item and are ...
Cosmos's user avatar
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1 answer
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What are the all benefits/advantages of OP_CHECKSIGADD over OP_CHECKMULTISIG?

What are all the benefits of introducing OP_CHECKSIGADD in Taproot instead of OP_CHECKMULTISIG? I assume the first benefit is the following. For example, in pre-taproot approach, if we have 3-of-10 ...
Cosmos's user avatar
  • 309
2 votes
1 answer
121 views

What would happen if we provide to OP_CHECKMULTISIG more than threshold number (m) of signatures?

Asked here but still no answer. What would happen if we provide to OP_CHECKMULTISIG opcode more than threshold number (m) of signatures? For example, if the m = 3 and n = 6 and the output script is: 3 ...
Cosmos's user avatar
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1 answer
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What's the point of Multi Signature Addresses?

When an attacker has access to the private key of the wallet, he can dump the private keys of every address used for the multisign address(es). So, what's the point of multi sign addresses when there'...
Otijun's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
397 views

Is the Schnorr digital signature scheme a multisignature interactive scheme, and also not an aggregated non-interactive scheme?

In his answer Pieter Wuille defined a concepts of multisignature scheme and aggregated signature scheme as follows: A multisignature scheme is a scheme where multiple parties jointly produce a ...
LeaBit's user avatar
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How to get signature for tweaked public key in P2TR in case of multiple signature?

EDIT: Can we just tweak the signature with the root MAST as well? As I understand, the public key in scriptPubKey for P2TR is obtained by tweaking (let's call it original public key) and the root of ...
LeaBit's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
107 views

What are the privacy implications of multsig wallets if one half is compromised?

I am trying to work out the privacy implications of the following scenario. Alice and Bob have a multisig wallet together (say Electrum but it doesn't really matter). Alice's computer is somehow ...
user2334659's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
70 views

How to find out if public keys have been used in other transactions

When we get the public keys from a multisig script is there a way to check what other transactions use those public keys? I know how to check if they have been used as P2PKH addresses, but I'm not ...
user2334659's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
440 views

Why are n public keys needed for reconstitution of an x of n multisig?

Trying to conceptually understand why I must store the public keys of the n hardware wallets in an x of n multisig set up? Only x of the seed phrases/private keys are needed to reconstitute/recover ...
Runeaway3's user avatar
  • 329
0 votes
1 answer
25 views

From where can I download a precompiled Windows installable Bitcoin core with support of hardware wallet for BitBox02

I wanted to integrate my BitBox02 into the existing Bitcoin Core Version v24.0.1 on my Windows 10 laptop. In the customization menu I receive the notice that this node does not contain the hardware ...
Thomas Völker's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
265 views

Should different brands of hardware wallets be used in multisig setups?

Is there genuinely a compelling reason to use different brands of hardware wallets in multisig setups? I am contemplating using a series of Coldcard hardware wallets in a multisig setup but some ...
Guru Josh's user avatar
  • 171
1 vote
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Scripting an escrow transaction where the arbitrator ALWAYS gets paid

I am trying to make an Escrow and Arbitration where the arbitrator always gets paid say 5% of the transaction. As in the famous escrow example here: Charlie-the-customer wants to buy a product from ...
Farahats9's user avatar
  • 111
2 votes
1 answer
153 views

Does a set of private keys have a different XPUB and ZPUB for single signature and multisig?

I am experimenting with multisig wallets using Sparrow. I have two Nano Ledger hardware wallets each set up for single signature with different private keys. I used them to create a 2 of 2 multisig ...
Guru Josh's user avatar
  • 171
1 vote
1 answer
98 views

Bitcoin Multisig tx signing

I've generated a 2-of-3 P2SH Multisig address (testnet) and am attempting to manually reproduce the signatures to spend from it. While I can replicate the signature for the first key, as produced by ...
Pawel's user avatar
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1 answer
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Create a multisig wallet using Sparrow wallet with keys (A and (B or C))

Further to the following question: Can the same set of private keys be used multiple times in a multisig wallet? I tried to create a multisig wallet with keys (A and (B or C)) in Sparrow wallet using ...
Guru Josh's user avatar
  • 171
2 votes
2 answers
253 views

Can the same set of private keys be used multiple times in a multisig wallet?

Is there any limitation to how many times the same set of private keys can exist within a multisig wallet? For example, could a 3 of 4 multisig wallet be created with two of the four keys being ...
Guru Josh's user avatar
  • 171
1 vote
2 answers
120 views

Bitcoin inheritance

For a while now I've been wondering what is the best way to setup an inheritance plan for the bitcoin I own. Has any one here set one up? What’s your plan?
Sebastian's user avatar
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1 vote
3 answers
330 views

Do I need to store my hardware wallet's derivation path?

"Not your keys, not your coins" is common mantra. I thought all I needed to do was to safeguard my private keys (via hardware wallet, cold storage) to be able to reconstitute my BTC at any ...
Runeaway3's user avatar
  • 329
1 vote
1 answer
59 views

multiple multisigs with minimal cold devices

I want to maximize security but minimize complexity. Let's say I have large enough sums of BTC that need to be secured into three buckets: KYC Personal BTC Non KYC Personal BTC (mined) KYC Company ...
Francis's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
41 views

Receiving funds in multisig - is it enough to confirm the receive address on every signing device?

If I confirm the receive address displayed in my software wallet matches on EVERY signing device in my multisig setup, can I be confident that any funds sent to that address belong to an address I ...
chaulmianmints's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
147 views

multisig vs singlesig

Due to the Ledger debacle I have purchased a Coldcard hardware wallet. I made this decision partly based on watching the Antonopoulos live stream last week. Until now I have backed up my bitcoin on a ...
Sam's user avatar
  • 11
-1 votes
1 answer
43 views

List unused multi-sig wallet addresses

Is there a way to list all bitcoin wallet addresses (or at least the count) which are receivers in a multi-sig transaction such that those addresses have never been used as senders in any other ...
sandeep kiran p's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
96 views

What is the difference between singlesig and multisig xpubs?

When exporting the xpub from my SeedSigner, I'm asked whether to export the "singlesig xpub" or "multisig xpub." I understand the use cases for each but from a technical standpoint,...
Oliver Offing's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
297 views

Can 2-of-3 multisig funds be recovered without one of the xpubs?

In a 2-of-3 multisig, the address list is derived from the combination of the three xpub keys. What happens if you lose one of the keys and its xpub? Technically, you'd be able to sign transactions. ...
Oliver Offing's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
113 views

"Signature must be zero for failed CHECK(MULTI)SIG operation"

I want to broadcast signed transaction but I get this error how can I solve this I get this everytime. "Signature must be zero for failed CHECK(MULTI)SIG operation" RAW hex ...
K. Khurshudyan's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
218 views

Is multisig less secure than single sig, since only one xpub needs to be swapped by an attacker to lose funds?

Scenario: (2 of 3 multisig) one of the hardware wallets is running malware and uses an attackers xpub instead of the one derived from the recovery phrase. This swapped xpub is reported to all the ...
chaulmianmints's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
216 views

Conditional MULTISIG transaction

I need a bitcoin lock script that will require my key and 1 of 4 other people. For example, If my key is present and one of the 4 other keys are also present, transaction can be claimed. If my key is ...
Anıl's user avatar
  • 41
1 vote
1 answer
310 views

Can 2 of 2 multisig funds be recovered without the xpubs

Background: I read that in a 2 of 3 setup, all funds would be considered lost in the event that even a single xpub was completely lost. if you can no longer derive the public keys of all cosigners, ...
chaulmianmints's user avatar

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