Questions tagged [multi-signature]

Multi-signature addresses require m-of-n signatures to authorize spending funds sent to them.

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Can one infer that a bc1 address is multisig?

Studying privacy and security implications of revealing if a bc1 address belongs to a multisig wallet vs a regular wallet. I do notice that multisig bc1 addresses are longer than regular ones… P2WSH (...
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Optimistic Multisigs

I had an idea for an optimistic multisig scheme. In a 2/2 multisig where pubkey1 could spend any time and pubkey2 could only spend after a future block number, could you have a condition that allowed ...
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How many addresses can be generated from a ranged descriptor?

I'm trying to wrap my head around ranged descriptors. The docs in the bitcoin/bitcoin-repo says that a ranged descriptor can generate keys/address "in a configurable range (0-1000 by default)&...
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Why does only one of the two nonce points in MuSig2 have the exponent b?

In MuSig2 R''_i is added to itself b times (in multiplicative notation, it has the exponent b) but R'_i is not (it does not have the exponent b). Why does only one of the nonce points have the ...
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How does the CHECKSIGADD opcode work? How does it compare to its predecessor CHECKMULTISIG?

How does the CHECKSIGADD opcode (defined in the Tapscript BIP) BIP342 work? How does it compare to its predecessor CHECKMULTISIG? The design of CHECKSIGADD was discussed in this StackExchange question....
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Why do invalid signatures in OP_CHECKSIGADD not push to the stack?

I've been working through the static test vectors provided by bitcoin core to implement an interpreter. Some surprising behavior I found was that in the case of OP_CHECKSIGADD, if an invalid signature ...
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Bitcoin multisig scheme that prevents theft by middle-man operator

Background I'm considering building a service that allows participants in my industry to strike OTC deals with each other using my centralized matchmaking service. The deals always involve two players,...
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How does SpeedyMuSig compare to MuSig2?

This paper (Crites, Komlo, Maller) on the security of Schnorr multisig and threshold signature schemes introduces a new variant of MuSig2 called SpeedyMuSig that includes proofs of possession and ...
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Review of multisig funds protection strategy

I want to protect my bitcoin and my threat model is that one of the two paper copies of the seed is accessed to recover the wallet and steal the funds. To mitigate this risk I am contemplating the ...
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1 answer
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How do MuSig2 and FROST compare for multisig key aggregation schemes?

Although FROST is primarily for threshold (k-of-n, k<n) key aggregation schemes (and MuSig2 doesn't support threshold) FROST can support multisig (n-of-n) key aggregation. So what are the upsides ...
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Multisig with existing single sig + passphrase

If I take 2 brand new HW wallets (like a Coldcards), plus an existing hw single sig wallet that has a passphrase and finds already assigned to it (like a Trezor)and then create a new multisig 2 of 3 ...
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Import Bitcoin core pubkey into Electrum for multisig setup

Background I have a service running on a server using bitcoin core that is signing transactions from a Bitcoin wallet automatically. However, if anyone were to get access to this server, they'd have ...
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Can you do P2WSH / P2SH on Lightning Network (LN)?

I understand that a channel is a 2 of 2 multisig: 1 && 1 Is it possible that one side of this channel is a multisig wallet? So in essence one of the 2 main, is actually a 2 of 3 multisig. ...
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1 answer
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Why does `OP_CHECKSIGADD` allow TAPROOT keyspends?

My understanding is this sig version is only for taproot keyspends, why is it allowed to be used in OP_CHECKSIGADD? https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/e826b22da252e0599c61d21c98ff89f366b3120f/src/...
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What is the largest multisig quorum currently possible?

Bitcoin script allows for a UTXO to be (un)encumbered by an N-of-N signature. When N is 1, this is referred to as a single signature. What are the limits of N for this application? What is the ...
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nunchuk.io - "To create new wallets, additional XPUBs from the key are needed."

I'm trying to start using Nunchuk (nunchuk.io), so I created 3 software keys on 3 different devices for my account, and then was able to create a wallet using those 3 keys as signers. But when I try ...
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Why isn't `OP_CHECKMULTISIG` compatible with batch verification of schnorr signatures?

BIP342 defines OP_CHECKSIGADD as a replacement for OP_CHECKMULTISIG. In the footnote it's mentioned that OP_CHECKMULTISIG is not compatible with batch verification, but I can't understand why and I ...
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Is weighed multi-sig wallet possible?

In a multi-sig wallet, each of the public keys is unique. Is it possible to create weighted multi-sig wallet, such that one private key has more power than the others? Case 1: typical Example (need 2 ...
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Can multisig wallet can be fooled by adding one more key?

Please consider this scenario. I agree with other party that we will create 2/2 multisig wallet, so we can only spend funds from that wallet together. The other party will create its wallet, generates ...
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Can you give me an example of a P2MS tx at testnet?

I am checking on the test net before applying current update. I'd like to check P2MS, which is "bare multisig," and I'd like to know the testnet transactionID of this. Or is there an ...
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Order of Signatures in Multisig-Scheme

3 Entities (A/B/C) create a collaborative Multisig Wallet (e.g. 2-of-3). A creates an unsigned TX and shares it with B/C. They (B/C) sign and broadcast. Looking at the TX on the network, can A make ...
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Create signature for raw bitcoin transaction by hand using Swift

I have a bitcoinWalletAddress in bitcoin testnet (starting with tb1) publicKey already in hex format privateKey in P2WPKH format looking like cTS... By following this guide and this one I created ...
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Question about multisigs with 2p-ecdsa

Is it possible to create more than 2 party multisigs using the 2P-ecdsa trick for cheaper and more private outputs? I'm assuming no, because ab * G is non-linear, whereas Schnorr would make this ...
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What will be the security risks if we persist "e" as part of schnorr signature=(r,s,e) and extract publicKey from signature at verification

We know unlike ecrecover, it is impossible to get to public key given schnorr signature = (r,s) since rG = sG-eP . So, would like to understand what are the security risks, if we say signature=F(r,s,e)...
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Bitcoin 22.x + doesn't decode addresses for multisig

anyone can suggest why addresses won't decode in newer versions? example: bitcoin-core 0.21 bitcoin-cli getrawtransaction 9297132b89461da9dee0364db49eeb1c32770550bc5b82e02f1cbaab01043aa3 1 { "...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Taproot: Multisig Keypath - different bech32 addresses for same keys

I have a keypath (which is a 2-of-2 multisig) and a tweak attached to it, this tweak is responsible for the scriptpath. The scriptpath only has a backup public key (used rarely). Alice + Bob's public ...
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What does the Bitcoin Core RPC createmultisig do? Should it be deprecated?

What does the Bitcoin Core RPC createmultisig do? What would I use it for? Should it be deprecated?
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Can't broadcast multi sig transaction

I was given a redeem script and transaction script in order to get a refund. Upon signing the transaction I get this error, can someone help please as I'm out my depth here? Thanks mandatory-script-...
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which wallets/softwares utilize taproot capabilites?

this question is not about being able to pay/receive to taproot addresses as I know there's a list for that here. I'm curious to see if anyone knows about wallets/software that utilize taproot ...
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Setting Up Multisig Correctly

I'm looking into setting up a multisig setup using sparrow, and wanted to see if anyone can find any flaws in my set up, and potentially accessing my funds if I lose a key. set up = 2 of 3 Key store 1 ...
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CLI tool like Bitcoin Explorer (bx) for BIP85? multisig?

Looking for a CLI tool like Bitcoin Explorer (bx) that will generate multiple seeds/mnemonics from a single entropy string, as per BIP85 Also one that allows for a decent multisig scheme? Or if not ...
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Can Electrum Multisig Wallet Be Swept?

My understanding is that private keys from the defined number of signatories are needed (i.e. 2/2 or 2/3 etc.) to send a transaction from a multisig wallet, so I'm assuming if one person's private key ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Non-standard multisig

I have a question regarding this transaction where the outputs are showing as non-standard but appear to be multi-sigs. This is the first output: Transaction ID: ...
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1 answer
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Create a 2-3 multisig address without syncing entire blockchain

I have a hardware wallet, a seed, and a specific private key. I want to create a 2-of-3 multisig using these 3 items. So the only option left is the option of creating a multisig using just private ...
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how to test decryption of shared seed for a multisig vault

I used the script from this post How to derive the private key associated with a Coinbase multi-sig vault address To get the Master Private Key, Extended Private key at index 14, and WIF format of ...
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3 votes
1 answer
192 views

Support for taproot multisig descriptors

I’m trying to understand the current state of descriptor support for taproot, with a specific focus on multisig wallets (When I say “multisig” I mean k-of-n threshold signing, rather than a schnorr ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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I have lost 1 of my 2 of 3 multisig seeds. How do I restore to make a transaction?

I come to you a little bit desperate, hoping for a clue to move forward. Long ago, I created 3 seed phrases, and then made a 2 of 3 multisig wallet with these 3. I did all of this using Cold Cards For ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Extracting forkcoins from legacy multisig Copay wallet

In 2017, we made an m-out-of-n multisignature wallet in the Copay app. After this time, several forks have arisen. Bitpay, the successor of Copay, does have built in support for Bitcoin Cash (BCH), ...
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Multisig with oracle

I am trying to develop an use case in which a user has its funds on a multisig 3-2 (one key staying with him, another with my app and another one with a type of oracle that can attest if some ...
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Maximum number of aggregated signatures with Schnorr

Is there a maximum number of signatures that can be aggregated into a single schnorr signature?
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2 answers
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why do we need to hash before we use a private key to digitally sign a transaction? isn't just using a private key enough?

why is a hash needed for digital signatures? isn't it redundant since the point of hashing is to ensure contents are not tampered with , which the digital signature can do as well (on top of ensuring ...
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2 votes
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Derivation path for brute forcing "25th word" on a multisig wallet

So I added a 25th word to my seed, forgot it, and am (after 6 months of on and off guessing) relegated to brute force (3rdIteration/btcrecover). Succinct question: what derivation path should I ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Can Schnorr aggregate signatures be nested inside other Schnorr aggregate signatures?

The way I've understood Schnorr signatures is that multiple parties can combine their signatures into a one shared signature, thus obfuscating the number of participants involved in the signature ...
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1 answer
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Multisig transactions after taproot

Before taproot when we had a multisig transaction the vout had an array of addresses(Image 1). Now, this multisig transaction in Bitcoin core v22.0 is represented only as a multisig type without the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Where can I get some MuSig2 test vectors?

I am writing a MuSig2 library and need some test vectors. This should include the hash functions used.
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1 vote
1 answer
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Is it possible to combine a native threshold-signature script with taproot?

Assuming we have N taproot addresses, is it possible to create an output that requires the signatures of t out N of those taproot addresses to be spent? I'm looking at a non-interactive protocol (i.e.,...
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`getaddressinfo` incorrect output for `ismine`

Running Core, trying to verify that I infact control a change address before I sign and broadcast a txn. But I can't find any way to list all future change addresses. I searched and found ...
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How to import YetiCold.com MultiSig Wallet into Electrum (watch only)

I created a multisig wallet using the instructions at https://yeticold.com/ (Level 3). It's supposed to only use Bitcoin Core and a small shim of GUI (https://github.com/JWWeatherman/yeticold/blob/...
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3 votes
1 answer
423 views

2-of-3 multisig with Schnorr signatures

From what I understand, Schnorr signatures will allow n-of-n multisignature transactions, however m-of-n isn't possible using the key path alone. Or is it? Suppose we need a 2-of-3 scheme. As far as I ...
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2 votes
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How to use bitcoin multisig to prioritize one of the parties?

Normally when you use OP_CHECKMULTISIG you're basically setting up something like x-of-y, where any x of the y key holders can carry out a transaction. I want to know, if you can repurpose this ...
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